Last updated: August 15, 2021

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You have heard that alpha lipoic acid is used for many diseases and could be promising? But you are not yet convinced of its effects and would like to learn more about the intake, scientific background and necessary criteria for the purchase of alpha lipoic acid? Then you've come to the right place.

With our alpha lipoic acid test 2021 we want to help you find the right alpha lipoic acid that suits your body and of course yourself best. In addition, we want to give you a lot of information about what alpha lipoic acid is and what you should pay attention to.




The most important facts

  • Alpha lipoic acid is characteristic for its antioxidant properties. It has a very important central role in human energy metabolism and is thus able to protect cells from damage and degeneration.
  • As a result, alpha lipoic acid is used for many diseases. Especially in diabetes, but also in diseases where oxidative stress is triggered, such as Alzheimer's disease.
  • Alpha lipoic acid is available in different dosage forms such as capsules, powder and injections. Injections are mainly used when the disease is more severe in those affected. There are also some ingredients that are not good for the body from a health point of view. These include synthetic alpha lipoic acid.

The Best Alpha Lipoic Acid: Our Picks

In the following, we have selected the best alpha lipoic acids to help you choose the most suitable alpha lipoic acid for you and your body.

Buying and evaluation criteria for alpha lipoic acid

By making the right choice for you, you ensure that you do not add anything to your body that it does not need. Therefore, always make sure that your product is of high quality and contains the right ingredients, because this is crucial for your health!

When buying alpha lipoic acid, you can look at various aspects, such as:

Dosage

The dosage of alpha lipoic acid varies from person to person. Therefore, first inform yourself about the recommended dose you need, because some tolerate less and others tolerate more. Especially with capsules, the proportions of alpha lipoic acid can vary greatly.

Ultimately, an optimal daily dose of alpha lipoic acid is not precisely defined. What is decisive, however, is the state of health and the purpose for which the alpha lipoic acid must be taken and the associated side effects. In addition, consumption at a high dose should be avoided, as serious side effects can occur.

Dosage form

Alpha lipoic acid is used in various forms of presentation.

Tablets or capsules are the most suitable for taking alpha lipoic acid, as these are available everywhere and are the easiest to use as well as precise to dose. If you do not tolerate a product well, it is not necessarily due to the tablet. In most cases it is due to some of the ingredients. In that case, try another brand.

Tablets and capsules are actually the same, at least in terms of absorption, as they are absorbed through the stomach and intestines. The difference, however, is that the exact dosage is more difficult to determine.

Ingredients

The ingredients must be natural ingredients, which means alpha lipoic acid should be free of any excipients or additives, as well as free of sugar. This is very important because the body needs natural ingredients to avoid side effects and to achieve improvements.

Focus on the most important and natural ingredients.

Vegan is a very good ingredient for the body. It has been made from non-animal ingredients and is free from unnecessary additives. It also has the best bioavailability without magnesium salts to get the ideal effectiveness.

Furthermore, alpha lipoic acid consists of either R-alpha lipoic acid only or S-alpha lipoic acid only or both are included. R-alpha lipoic acid comes in its natural form, which means that R-alpha lipoic acid is the body's own natural form, unlike S-alpha lipoic acid. This means that the product has an extremely high bioavailability. S-alpha lipoic acid comes in the synthetic form.

Ingredients should be of high quality. In addition, a high number of ingredients is not always the best choice.

Package size

You can decide the size for yourself. If you are using a product for the very first time or only rarely, then a smaller pack is recommended. Buying a larger pack is also very practical in order to have a sufficient supply, for example, if your health condition keeps deteriorating.

However, you should keep an eye on the shelf life of the product, otherwise there is a chance that you have spent more money on a larger pack that will not last long. Tablets or capsules have a shelf life of 2 years.

Guide: Frequently asked questions about alpha lipoic acid answered in detail

In order to inform you comprehensively about the effectiveness of alpha lipoic acid and to give you an understanding of the current state of science, we have summarised all the important information in the following sections.

What is alpha lipoic acid?

Alpha lipoic acid is a fatty acid containing sulphur. It is a natural substance that occurs in the body. More specifically, alpha lipoic acid is produced by the body itself. It is a naturally occurring antioxidant (1).

Alpha lipoic acid is also called ALA or lipoic acid.

The antioxidant works directly in the cells where it converts glucose into energy. It also acts against free radicals. These are waste products of the metabolic process and are therefore harmful to the cells and the body can be more susceptible to infections.

Alpha lipoic acid also plays a very important role in energy metabolism and is essential for human health.

How does alpha lipoic acid work?

Nowadays, alpha lipoic acid is promising due to science and shows itself to be a true multi-talent. This is because alpha lipoic acid is both water and fat soluble. This makes it possible to protect the cells and body tissues. The effect of alpha lipoic acid can be illustrated by several diseases:

  • Neuropathy in diabetes
  • Alzheimer's dementia
  • Burning mouth syndrome

Effect on diabetes

Alpha lipoic acid has been approved as a drug for the treatment of neuropathy in diabetics in Germany since 1996 (5). According to a short-term therapy over 3 weeks with a daily amount of 600 mg alpha lipoic acid, the spread of symptoms is reduced considerably.

Alpha Liponsäure

On a blue and white glucose meter the readings are seen after in relation to the intake of alpha lipoic acid (Image source: Matt Chesin/ Unsplash)

In addition, an evidence-based guideline on the diagnosis, therapy and follow-up of neuropathy in diabetes mellitus type 1 and type 2 was examined in 2004 and it came to the conclusion that the intake of alpha lipoic acid leads to an improvement in neurological symptoms (5).

As it cannot yet be determined exactly why alpha lipoic acid shows improvements in neuropathy in diabetics, it is suggested that alpha lipoic acid has the role of reducing glucose levels in diabetic disease (6).

Effects in Alzheimer's disease

Alzheimer's disease is mainly characterised by oxidative stress. Alpha lipoic acid could therefore have positive effects on Alzheimer's disease. Since we already know that alpha lipoic acid is a self-produced antioxidant in the body. Antioxidants namely protect the cells from free radicals by preventing the oxidation processes.

In one study, 9 patients were given 600 mg of alpha lipoic acid daily for a period of 12 months. To get better results, this was extended to 43 patients over a period of 48 months. The disease progressed extremely slowly in patients with mild dementia and about twice as fast in patients with moderate dementia. (7) .

Effect on burning mouth syndrome

Burning mouth syndrome refers to the burning of the tongue. This is a disorder of the tongue and the mucous membrane of the mouth. The cause of this disease is systemic autoimmune disease, which means that the mucous glands in the body are destroyed.

A study was able to determine that burning mouth syndrome has positive effects through the intake of alpha lipoic acid. However, the exact reason why the intake of alpha lipoic acid shows improvements is unclear.

In the study, 20 patients were given alpha lipoic acid. However, it is remarkable that the study gave alpha lipoic acid to two groups. One group who had already received tranquillisers and the other group who had not received tranquillisers before. (8)

The results showed a higher effectiveness of lipoic acid in patients who had not used tranquillisers before. So, in conclusion, the patients who had previously been treated with tranquillisers responded poorly to therapy with lipoic acid compared to patients who had not received prior psychotropic therapy.

When and for whom is it useful to take alpha lipoic acid?

Alpha lipoic acid has been used clinically and in a variety of disease models (2). Accordingly, alpha lipoic acid should be used when individuals have these diseases:

  • Diabetic disease
  • Neuropathy
  • Alzheimer's dementia
  • Cancer
  • Sickle cell anaemia
  • Burning tongue

So alpha lipoic acid really should be used to improve the health of the sufferers. In particular, alpha lipoic acid helps to improve the disease in people with diabetes. This is because alpha lipoic acid ensures a reduction in sensory disturbances in blood sugar diseases (diabetes mellitus) (6).

In principle, alpha lipoic acid is useful for both sexes, for women as well as for men who have complaints in the body. For example, also for trained men who are exposed to muscle-damaging exercise (3)

Alpha lipoic acid can be taken by both men and women. (Image source: 123rf / Roman Samborskyi)

Alpha lipoic acid, as you have already learned, is a natural molecule that exerts antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities through its reduced form. Since no study has been conducted yet, one observational study suspects that alpha lipoic acid may be useful in preventing miscarriages and premature births (4).

Alpha lipoic acid is suitable for healthy adults who are not breastfeeding babies. Breastfeeding women and children should not take alpha lipoic acid without consulting a doctor.

It is also interesting to note that alpha lipoic acid can be very useful for animals. For example, in rats, there is a possibility that oxidative stress may be a causative factor in the ageing process of the heart and other tissues.

Keep in mind that alpha lipoic acid should not only be taken during acute symptoms, but rather in the long term to achieve long-term results.

What types of alpha lipoic acid are there and which one is right for you?

So that you know exactly what you are adding to your body and can distinguish what is better for you, we have presented the types of alpha lipoic acid in a table.

Type Description
Alpha lipoic acid capsules most common type of alpha lipoic acid. These can be swallowed easily with sufficient liquid.
Alpha lipoic acid powder The powder form is available dry and should therefore be mixed with a liquid.
Alpha lipoic acid injection Alpha lipoic acid is injected by means of a syringe, which allows the alpha lipoic acid to be introduced into the body.

We will explain the advantages and disadvantages of both methods in more detail in the next few paragraphs.

Alpha lipoic acid capsules

If you have no difficulty swallowing larger capsules, then alpha lipoic acid capsules are just right for you. We recommend that you do not swallow the alpha lipoic acid capsules while lying down, as there is a risk of it getting stuck in the oesophagus.

Alpha Liponsäure

Alpha lipoic acid capsules are used to promote human health, but above all to reduce the manifestation of diseases. (Image source: The-Lore /unsplash)

In order to achieve a better and efficient effect, it is best to take water, as the body needs water and not juices and sugary drinks.

Capsules consist of a cellulose shell and loose alpha lipoic acid powder, whereas tablets consist of alpha lipoic acid powder and other medicines.

Advantages
  • uncomplicated dosage
  • ideal for on-the-go
  • available to buy everywhere
  • have no taste of their own due to encapsulation
Disadvantages
  • must be swallowed whole
  • prescription required in most cases

Alpha lipoic acid powder

If you're not a fan of capsules, alpha lipoic acid powders are for you. Unlike capsules, you do not have to swallow the alpha lipoic acid powder and you can mix the alpha lipoic acid powder ideally with your drink. As the alpha lipoic acid powder contains a pure active ingredient, the alpha lipoic acid powders usually taste very sharp and can be unpleasant on the tongue. In addition, the alpha lipoic acid powders do not require any additives.

Advantages
  • can be mixed into drinks
  • no further additives necessary
Disadvantages
  • hot and spicy taste
  • usually a combination of R-alpha lipoic acid and S-alpha lipoic acid

Alpha lipoic acid powders often contain two types of alpha lipoic acid. One is R-alpha lipoic acid and the other is S-alpha lipoic acid.

R-alpha lipoic acid has health-promoting effects and, unlike S-alpha lipoic acid, is natural. This means that you should make sure that your alpha lipoic acid powder does not contain S-alpha lipoic acid. S-alpha lipoic acid is synthetic and is therefore a burden on the body.

Alpha lipoic acid injection

Alpha lipoic acid injections are unfortunately not available for purchase and can therefore only be administered and carried out under medical supervision. For people suffering from diabetes or other diseases, alpha lipoic acid injections are often performed because the substance is injected directly into the bloodstream.

Advantages
  • fast and better effect
  • high bioavailability
Disadvantages
  • not available for purchase

As a result, the effectiveness is better and faster. In addition, alpha lipoic acid injections have a high bioavailability.

Alpha Liponsäure

Alpha lipoic acid tablets or capsules can also be bought in stock either on the internet or in shops. (Image source: Christine Sandu /unsplash)

What are the side effects of taking alpha lipoic acid?

Like all medicines, alpha lipoic acid can have side effects. These do not necessarily occur in everyone. Every person reacts differently to their body and the corresponding medicines, i.e. alpha lipoic acid.

Nevertheless, there are possible side effects that can occur, such as for example: immune system disorders, very rarely allergic reactions such as skin rashes, hives (urticaria) and itching (9).

Other possible side effects may include nervous system disorders, and very rarely nausea, vomiting, gastrointestinal disorders and diarrhoea (9).

What are the alternatives to alpha lipoic acid?

You have already learned in this article that alpha lipoic acid is an antioxidant. However, there are many alternatives to alpha lipoic acid, as there are many other antioxidants besides alpha lipoic acid that may be more effective for your body. These are some alternatives to alpha lipoic acid:

  • Resveratrol: Resveratrol is a powerful antioxidant with strong anti-inflammatory properties (10). This antioxidant continues to be studied for its potential health benefits. Accordingly, 19 patients were studied to determine the extent to which resveratrol improves insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetics. The study was conducted within 4 weeks. After 4 weeks, the study observed that resveratrol improved insulin sensitivity in humans, which may be due to a decrease in oxidative stress (11).
  • VitaminE: Vitamin E has a positive effect on diseases. For example, on Alzheimer's disease. This is also due to its properties, as with alpha lipoic acid. It has been shown that vitamin E has positive effects in moderate Alzheimer's disease, but is limited in mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease (12).
  • Oligomeric proanthocyanidins (OPC): The so-called oligomeric proanthocyanidins have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. They can bind metals and thus prevent free radicals from forming in the body and damaging the cells. Oligomeric proanthocyanidins are actively used against diabetic oxidative stress (13).

As you can see, each of these antioxidants has its benefits. However, they are similar in function, as the above alternatives have the same positive effects on diseases as alpha lipoic acid. This includes Alzheimer's disease and in diabetes.

When does alpha lipoic acid work in my body?

In principle, the effectiveness is different for each person, as each person is individual and different. However, the form of administration could increase the effectiveness, because an infusion achieves a faster effectiveness than, for example, capsules, as the substance is injected directly into the bloodstream.

In addition, the state of health also plays an important role. Nevertheless, it can be said that when alpha lipoic acid should be taken is also an important factor in the effect.

It is recommended to take alpha lipoic acid 30 minutes before a meal. In addition, alcohol should not be consumed during the use of alpha lipoic acid.

In general, alcohol should be avoided, as health is the first priority and the goals of improving the disease with alpha lipoic acid can only be achieved if alcohol, smoking and other substances are avoided.

What else is alpha lipoic acid known for?

Alpha lipoic acid is also taken in with food. It belongs to the vitamin-like substances and is produced by the body. Alpha lipoic acid is found in plant and animal foods. In addition, alpha lipoic acid occurs in connection with lipolyses.

Alpha lipoic acid is mainly found in meat products such as liver, kidney and heart, but also in tomatoes, broccoli and spinach. It is absorbed via the intestine into the blood and thus into the corresponding tissues and organs, thus promoting the body and human health.

Image source: Michael Simons / 123rf

References (13)

1. Kucukgoncu S, Zhou E, Lucas KB, Tek C. Alpha-Liponsäure (ALA) als Ergänzung zur Gewichtsabnahme: Ergebnisse aus einer Meta-Analyse von randomisierten kontrollierten Studien. Obes Rev. 2017 Mai;18(5):594-601. doi: 10.1111/obr.12528. Epub 2017 13. März PMID: 28295905; PMCID: PMC5523816.
Source

2. Carlson DA, Smith AR, Fischer SJ, Young KL, Packer L. Die Plasmapharmakokinetik von R-(+)-Liponsäure, die als Natrium-R-(+)-Lipoat an gesunde Menschen verabreicht wird. Altern Med Rev. 2007 Dez;12(4):343-51. PMID: 18069903.
Source

3. Zembron-Lacny A, Slowinska-Lisowska M, Szygula Z, Witkowski K, Stefaniak T, Dziubek W. Bewertung der antioxidativen Wirksamkeit von Alpha-Liponsäure bei gesunden Männern, die muskelschädigenden Übungen ausgesetzt sind. J Physiol Pharmacol. 2009 Jun;60(2):139-43. PMID: 19617657.
Source

4. Parente E, Colannino G, Picconi O, Monastra G. Sicherheit der oralen Alpha-Liponsäure-Behandlung bei Schwangeren: eine retrospektive Beobachtungsstudie. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2017 Sep;21(18):4219-4227. PMID: 29028075.
Source

5. Unterstützung eines Gewichtsreduktionsprogramms durch Coenzym Q10 und Alpha-Liponsäure in micellierter wasserlöslicher Formulierung; Karen Barbara Franz; Publikation 2012; Jahr 2013
Source

6. Tibullo D, Li Volti G, Giallongo C, Grasso S, Tomassoni D, Anfuso CD, Lupo G, Amenta F, Avola R, Bramanti V. Biochemische und klinische Relevanz von Alpha-Liponsäure: antioxidative und entzündungshemmende Aktivität, molekulare Wege und therapeutisches Potenzial. Inflamm Res. 2017 Nov;66(11):947-959. doi: 10.1007/s00011-017-1079-6. Epub 2017 Jul 4. PMID: 28676917.
Source

7. Hager K, Kenklies M, McAfoose J, Engel J, Münch G. Alpha-lipoic acid as a new treatment option for Alzheimer's disease--a 48 months follow-up analysis. J Neural Transm Suppl. 2007;(72):189-93. doi: 10.1007/978-3-211-73574-9_24. PMID: 17982894.
Source

8. Femiano F, Gombos F, Scully C. Burning Mouth Syndrom: die Wirksamkeit von Liponsäure in Untergruppen. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2004 Nov;18(6):676-8. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-3083.2004.01049.x. PMID: 15482293.
Source

9. Uwe Gröber; Akademie & Zentrum für Mikronährstoffmedizin; DAZ 2009, Nr. 3, S. 92, 15.01.2009
Source

10. Afaq F, Adhami VM, Ahmad N. Prävention von kurzfristigen ultravioletten B-Strahlung-vermittelten Schäden durch Resveratrol bei SKH-1 haarlosen Mäusen. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2003 Jan 1;186(1):28-37. doi: 10.1016/s0041-008x(02)00014-5. PMID: 12583990.
Source

11. Brasnyó P, Molnár GA, Mohás M, Markó L, Laczy B, Cseh J, Mikolás E, Szijártó IA, Mérei A, Halmai R, Mészáros LG, Sümegi B, Wittmann I. Resveratrol improves insulin sensitivity, reduces oxidative stress and activates the Akt pathway in type 2 diabetic patients. Br J Nutr. 2011 Aug;106(3):383-9. doi: 10.1017/S0007114511000316. Epub 2011 Mar 9. PMID: 21385509.
Source

12. Dysken MW, Sano M, Asthana S, Vertrees JE, Pallaki M, Llorente M, Love S, Schellenberg GD, McCarten JR, Malphurs J, Prieto S, Chen P, Loreck DJ, Trapp G, Bakshi RS, Mintzer JE, Heidebrink JL, Vidal-Cardona A, Arroyo LM, Cruz AR, Zachariah S, Kowall NW, Chopra MP, Craft S, Thielke S, Turvey CL, Woodman C, Monnell KA, Gordon K, Tomaska J, Segal Y, Peduzzi PN, Guarino PD. Effect of vitamin E and memantine on functional decline in Alzheimer disease: the TEAM-AD VA cooperative randomized trial. JAMA. 2014 Jan 1;311(1):33-44. doi: 10.1001/jama.2013.282834. Erratum in: JAMA. 2014 Mar 19;311(11):1161. PMID: 24381967; PMCID: PMC4109898.
Source

13. Yokozawa T, Cho EJ, Park CH, Kim JH. Protective Effect of Proanthocyanidin against Diabetic Oxidative Stress. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2012;2012:623879. doi: 10.1155/2012/623879. Epub 2011 Sep 7. PMID: 21912569; PMCID: PMC3168294.
Source

Why you can trust me?

Wissenschaftliche Studie
Kucukgoncu S, Zhou E, Lucas KB, Tek C. Alpha-Liponsäure (ALA) als Ergänzung zur Gewichtsabnahme: Ergebnisse aus einer Meta-Analyse von randomisierten kontrollierten Studien. Obes Rev. 2017 Mai;18(5):594-601. doi: 10.1111/obr.12528. Epub 2017 13. März PMID: 28295905; PMCID: PMC5523816.
Go to source
Wissenschaftliche Studie
Carlson DA, Smith AR, Fischer SJ, Young KL, Packer L. Die Plasmapharmakokinetik von R-(+)-Liponsäure, die als Natrium-R-(+)-Lipoat an gesunde Menschen verabreicht wird. Altern Med Rev. 2007 Dez;12(4):343-51. PMID: 18069903.
Go to source
Wissenschaftliche Studie
Zembron-Lacny A, Slowinska-Lisowska M, Szygula Z, Witkowski K, Stefaniak T, Dziubek W. Bewertung der antioxidativen Wirksamkeit von Alpha-Liponsäure bei gesunden Männern, die muskelschädigenden Übungen ausgesetzt sind. J Physiol Pharmacol. 2009 Jun;60(2):139-43. PMID: 19617657.
Go to source
Wissenschaftliche Studie
Parente E, Colannino G, Picconi O, Monastra G. Sicherheit der oralen Alpha-Liponsäure-Behandlung bei Schwangeren: eine retrospektive Beobachtungsstudie. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2017 Sep;21(18):4219-4227. PMID: 29028075.
Go to source
Naturwissenschaftliche Arbeit
Unterstützung eines Gewichtsreduktionsprogramms durch Coenzym Q10 und Alpha-Liponsäure in micellierter wasserlöslicher Formulierung; Karen Barbara Franz; Publikation 2012; Jahr 2013
Go to source
Klinische Studie
Tibullo D, Li Volti G, Giallongo C, Grasso S, Tomassoni D, Anfuso CD, Lupo G, Amenta F, Avola R, Bramanti V. Biochemische und klinische Relevanz von Alpha-Liponsäure: antioxidative und entzündungshemmende Aktivität, molekulare Wege und therapeutisches Potenzial. Inflamm Res. 2017 Nov;66(11):947-959. doi: 10.1007/s00011-017-1079-6. Epub 2017 Jul 4. PMID: 28676917.
Go to source
Klinische Studie
Hager K, Kenklies M, McAfoose J, Engel J, Münch G. Alpha-lipoic acid as a new treatment option for Alzheimer's disease--a 48 months follow-up analysis. J Neural Transm Suppl. 2007;(72):189-93. doi: 10.1007/978-3-211-73574-9_24. PMID: 17982894.
Go to source
Wissenschaftliche Studie
Femiano F, Gombos F, Scully C. Burning Mouth Syndrom: die Wirksamkeit von Liponsäure in Untergruppen. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2004 Nov;18(6):676-8. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-3083.2004.01049.x. PMID: 15482293.
Go to source
Deutsche Apotheke Zeitung
Uwe Gröber; Akademie & Zentrum für Mikronährstoffmedizin; DAZ 2009, Nr. 3, S. 92, 15.01.2009
Go to source
Wissenschaftliche Studie
Afaq F, Adhami VM, Ahmad N. Prävention von kurzfristigen ultravioletten B-Strahlung-vermittelten Schäden durch Resveratrol bei SKH-1 haarlosen Mäusen. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2003 Jan 1;186(1):28-37. doi: 10.1016/s0041-008x(02)00014-5. PMID: 12583990.
Go to source
Wissenschaftliche Studie
Brasnyó P, Molnár GA, Mohás M, Markó L, Laczy B, Cseh J, Mikolás E, Szijártó IA, Mérei A, Halmai R, Mészáros LG, Sümegi B, Wittmann I. Resveratrol improves insulin sensitivity, reduces oxidative stress and activates the Akt pathway in type 2 diabetic patients. Br J Nutr. 2011 Aug;106(3):383-9. doi: 10.1017/S0007114511000316. Epub 2011 Mar 9. PMID: 21385509.
Go to source
Wissenschaftliche Studie
Dysken MW, Sano M, Asthana S, Vertrees JE, Pallaki M, Llorente M, Love S, Schellenberg GD, McCarten JR, Malphurs J, Prieto S, Chen P, Loreck DJ, Trapp G, Bakshi RS, Mintzer JE, Heidebrink JL, Vidal-Cardona A, Arroyo LM, Cruz AR, Zachariah S, Kowall NW, Chopra MP, Craft S, Thielke S, Turvey CL, Woodman C, Monnell KA, Gordon K, Tomaska J, Segal Y, Peduzzi PN, Guarino PD. Effect of vitamin E and memantine on functional decline in Alzheimer disease: the TEAM-AD VA cooperative randomized trial. JAMA. 2014 Jan 1;311(1):33-44. doi: 10.1001/jama.2013.282834. Erratum in: JAMA. 2014 Mar 19;311(11):1161. PMID: 24381967; PMCID: PMC4109898.
Go to source
Wissenschatfliche Studie
Yokozawa T, Cho EJ, Park CH, Kim JH. Protective Effect of Proanthocyanidin against Diabetic Oxidative Stress. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2012;2012:623879. doi: 10.1155/2012/623879. Epub 2011 Sep 7. PMID: 21912569; PMCID: PMC3168294.
Go to source
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