Last updated: August 11, 2021

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When inflammation develops in your body, it often leads to unpleasant symptoms such as pain, fever and swelling, which can make everyday life difficult. To relieve these symptoms and make you feel better again, you can take anti-inflammatory medicines. There is a wide range of medicines that can help you depending on the type and severity of your inflammation - from ointments to tablets and solutions to plasters.

With our large anti-inflammatory medication test 2021, we want to help you find the best anti-inflammatory medication for you. To do this, we have taken a close look at different types of products and compared the respective advantages and disadvantages. We have also looked at frequently asked questions about anti-inflammatory medicines and provided clear answers. We hope that this will make your purchase decision easier.




The most important

  • Anti-inflammatory drugs are medicines that you can use to relieve symptoms of inflammation in your body once it has already started. They are mainly divided into steroidal and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.
  • There are anti-inflammatory drugs for acute as well as chronic inflammation. They can either be localised (localised) or affect the whole body (generalised). Apart from the anti-inflammatory effect, they usually have an additional effect, such as pain-relieving, fever-reducing, decongestant and/or cooling.
  • Anti-inflammatories are available in the form of ointments, creams and gels, tablets and capsules, solutions and plasters. Which form is best for you depends primarily on the type and extent of your inflammation.

The Best Anti-inflammatory drugs: Our Picks

Guide: Questions you should ask yourself before buying anti-inflammatory drugs

What are anti-inflammatory medicines?

Anti-inflammatory medicines are medicines that you can use to reduce inflammation (also called inflammation) in your body. They are alternatively known as anti-inflammatories or anti-inflammatory drugs - two terms that come from the Greek for "anti-inflammatory".

entzündungshemmende Medikamente-1

You can buy anti-inflammatories in different forms. One well-known and widely used option is tablets and capsules.
(Image source: unsplash.com / Volodymyr Hryshchenko )

There are a variety of anti-inflammatory medications with different active ingredients and active ingredient compositions that are intended for either internal or external use. Which one is used depends on where the inflammation is, how severe it is and what symptoms need to be relieved.

Who are anti-inflammatory medicines for?

Anti-inflammatory medications are generally for people who have inflammation and want to limit its severity. Accordingly, they are also suitable for special groups of people such as athletes, pregnant women, breastfeeding mothers and children. However, in these cases you should only use such medicines in an emergency and after consulting your doctor.

entzündungshemmende Medikamente-2

Inflammation often leads to pain in the body, which some people find hard to bear. Anti-inflammatory medicines can help here.
(Image source: pixabay.com / StockSnap)

By the way, we speak of inflammation when a pathogen, a foreign body or other influences such as constant stress irritate or damage our tissues or organs and our body's own immune system intervenes to counteract the harmful stimulus. As a result, we typically experience symptoms such as redness of the skin, swelling, pain, increased sensation of warmth and/or impaired function of physical abilities as well as processes. Symptoms may occur in isolation or in combination. In some cases, inflammations even behave completely inconspicuously, without any complaints becoming apparent.

Based on the course and spread of an inflammation, a rough distinction can be made between acute and chronic as well as local and generalised inflammation.

Acute inflammation is an inflammation that starts suddenly and usually subsides after a short time. If you want to learn more about this type of inflammation, you might find this video interesting:

In contrast to "acute" and "chronic", the terms "local" and "generalised" describe the location of inflammation: localised inflammation is confined to one part of the body, while generalised inflammation affects the whole body.

If you show the signs described above, it is advisable to consult a doctor or pharmacist to discuss whether inflammation is actually present and whether it is necessary to take anti-inflammatory medication.

How do anti-inflammatory drugs work?

The way a particular anti-inflammatory drug works depends primarily on the active ingredient it contains. You can mainly distinguish between steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAP).

At the centre of the steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are the glucocorticoids (alternative spelling: glucocorticoids). These are steroid hormones that occur naturally in our bodies, but can also be produced synthetically for medicinal purposes. They have an anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive, growth-inhibiting and vasoconstrictor effect (1).

The anti-inflammatory effect comes about as follows: the glucocorticoids bind to special glucocorticoid receptors within the cells and form a complex with them that prevents the production of proteins that promote inflammatory processes in the body (2). In addition, they activate anti-inflammatory proteins that block certain enzymes responsible for the production of pro-inflammatory substances (2). Accordingly, these anti-inflammatory effects are based on the principle of transrepression and expression of the body's own messenger substances, so-called mediators (1).

In the case of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, COX inhibitors are the main players, which have an anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and analgesic effect (3).

In contrast to steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs do not affect all phases of inflammation, but only some: As the name implies, COX inhibitors inhibit the enzyme cyclooxygenase (abbreviated: COX) in our organism, which initiates the production of inflammatory mediators from the class of prostaglandins (3). Traditional non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs aim to block both forms of the enzyme, while newer ones aim to inhibit only cyclooxygenase-2 (abbreviated: COX-2).

To help you understand which drugs belong to which type of anti-inflammatory drug and what the specific anti-inflammatory drugs are used for, we have created the following table:

Group of active substances Examples of active substances Examples of use
Steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs betamethasone, dexamethasone, hydrocortisone, paramethasone, prednisolone
  • Bronchial asthma
  • Allergies, eczema, neurodermatitis, psoriasis
  • Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis
  • Epilepsy
  • Multiple sclerosis
  • Rheumatism
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), diclofenac, ibuprofen, naproxen, indometacin, phenylbutazone, meloxicam, piroxicam, tenoxicam, celecoxib, etoricoxib, parecoxib
  • Fever
  • Pain, for example headache, migraine, menstrual pain, toothache
  • Acute inflammations
  • Chronic inflammatory and degenerative diseases, for example rheumatism, gout, arthritis, arthrosis

You should ask your doctor or pharmacist which drug is best for your circumstances.

What are the side effects of anti-inflammatory drugs?

On the one hand, anti-inflammatory drugs help with discomfort, but on the other hand they are also able to cause side effects.

In the case of steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, these can include the following:

  • Increased risk of infection (4)
  • Non-responsiveness and resistance (5)
  • increased risk of thrombosis (6)
  • Impaired memory and attention deficits (7)
  • Weakening and reduction of muscle mass and its recovery (8)
  • Immunodeficiency (9)
  • Cushing's syndrome (10)

If you use non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, these side effects are possible:

  • Nausea, indigestion, diarrhoea (11)
  • increased risk of heart attack and promotion of heart failure (12, 13)
  • increased risk of gastrointestinal bleeding and perforation (13)
  • Damage to kidney function (14)
  • Lesions of the small and large intestine (14)
  • Impairment of bone healing (15)

Whether and which side effects occur depends on various factors, such as the dosage, the form of administration, the method and duration of use and your own physical conditions. It is also important to pay attention to which other medications you are taking, as interactions can occur. For this reason, we recommend that you talk to a doctor or pharmacist and read the package leaflet before buying any medicine.

What are the alternatives to anti-inflammatory drugs?

Unlike synthetic medicines that act as anti-inflammatories, you can also use natural remedies that are also thought to have an anti-inflammatory effect. In the table below, we have focused on three of these possible alternatives:

Alternative Description
Turmeric Turmeric is a root plant whose processed rhizome is popularly used as a spice in cooking. The colouring agent curcumin contained in the plant has an anti-inflammatory effect. When taken, it lowers the inflammation levels in the blood and is therefore well suited for the treatment of pain caused by inflammation. You can take the curcumin either in the form of capsules or by means of the turmeric spice.
Clove Cloves are a type of plant that was originally native to the Moluccas (Spice Islands). They are commonly used in the kitchen as a spice in small doses. Their ingredient eugenol has a germicidal effect and can restrict the formation of tissue hormones, which are partly responsible for the emergence of inflammation in our body. The ingredient can be consumed, for example, in spice mixtures and clove oil.
Omega-3 fatty acids Omega-3 fatty acids are polyunsaturated fatty acids that are essential - or in other words vital - for our body. Because our body cannot produce them itself, we depend on getting them from food or supplements. Omega-3 fatty acids counteract inflammation by curbing the formation of pro-inflammatory tissue hormones. They are found in foods such as fish or flaxseed and can be purchased as dietary supplements in the form of capsules or oil.

Sources (16, 17, 18, 19, 20)

Decision: What types of anti-inflammatory medicines are there and which one is right for me?

In case you want to buy an anti-inflammatory medicine, you have the choice between four types of products:

  • Anti-inflammatory ointments, creams and gels
  • Anti-inflammatory tablets and capsules
  • Anti-inflammatory solution
  • Anti-inflammatory plaster

Each of the product types mentioned here has certain advantages and disadvantages, depending on the active ingredient and the effect. Depending on your personal situation and individual needs, a different type may be suitable for you. To help you decide which product is best for you, we have summarised the advantages and disadvantages of each product type in the following sections.

What are the characteristics of anti-inflammatory ointments, creams and gels and what are their advantages and disadvantages?

Anti-inflammatory ointments, creams and gels are preparations of different consistencies that you can apply externally to small or large areas of your body to reduce the symptoms of inflammation in certain areas. The active ingredients penetrate the skin to the site of the problem and usually have an analgesic, cooling and/or decongestant effect.

Advantages
  • Intended for external, local application
  • Can be used on small to large areas
  • Pain-relieving, cooling and decongestant effect
  • Particularly suitable for treating joints, muscles, ligaments and tendons
  • Fewer side effects and interactions
Disadvantages
  • No deep-seated, internal treatment
  • More complex application
  • Can trigger additional inflammation if used incorrectly

Ointments, creams and gels are best suited for the inflammation-related therapy of joints, muscles, ligaments as well as tendons. As they are applied locally, they cause fewer side effects and interactions than medicines affecting the whole organism.

One disadvantage of these products, however, is that they cannot be used for deep-seated, internal treatment. Instead, you have to apply them externally to your body and rub them in, which may be laborious depending on the size of the affected area. You should be careful not to get the medicines on open wounds and mucous membranes, as this can lead to additional inflammation.

What are anti-inflammatory tablets and capsules and what are their advantages and disadvantages?

Anti-inflammatory tablets and capsules are solid, portioned medicines that you simply take orally. Their active ingredients are absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract and then distributed in the bloodstream. Accordingly, these medicines are intended for internal, systemic use.

Advantages
  • Intended for internal, systemic use
  • Simple application
  • Exact dosage due to predefined amount of active ingredient
  • Easy to store and long shelf life
Disadvantages
  • Frequent side effects and interactions
  • Takes time to take effect
  • Regular intake at certain times necessary

Due to the portioned form and the predefined amount of active ingredients, an exact dosage of the tablets and capsules is possible. Another positive aspect is that they are easy to store and can be used for a long time because of their shelf life.

What speaks against anti-inflammatory tablets and capsules, however, is that they can cause side effects and interactions more often than locally applied medicines. In addition, their helpful effect is delayed due to the long dispersal route and you usually have to be meticulous about taking them regularly and at certain times so that they can work properly.

What makes an anti-inflammatory solution and what are its advantages and disadvantages?

An anti-inflammatory solution is a liquid in which active ingredients are dissolved and which you can easily drink. Accordingly, it is designed for internal use. After ingestion, the active ingredients are absorbed by the gastrointestinal tract and then enter the bloodstream via a small diversions.

Advantages
  • Intended for internal, systemic use
  • Easy to use
  • Works faster than tablets and capsules
  • Can be dosed individually
Disadvantages
  • Frequent side effects and interactions
  • Regular intake at certain times necessary
  • Possibly unpleasant taste

Since the active ingredients are present in liquid form in a solution, unlike in tablets and capsules, our body can absorb them more easily and the anti-inflammatory effect occurs more quickly. Another attractive feature of a solution is that you can dose it individually and adjust it to your needs.

On the other hand, solutions are more likely to have side effects and interactions than topical medicines, and you need to take them regularly - preferably at the same times - for their full effect to be felt. Furthermore, some people find the taste of certain solutions unpleasant.

What is an anti-inflammatory patch and what are its advantages and disadvantages?

An anti-inflammatory patch is an adhesive preparation that contains active ingredients in the form of a strip that you can simply apply to a specific part of your body. It thus helps with local inflammations from the outside.

Because they are applied locally, they cause fewer side effects and interactions than medicines that affect the whole organism.

Advantages
  • Intended for external, local application
  • Easy to use
  • Active ingredients can be released constantly
  • Fewer side effects and interactions
Disadvantages
  • No dose adjustment possible
  • Less suitable for large-area application
  • Can fall off easily

It is possible to leave such patches on the skin for several days so that the active ingredients can be released constantly over a longer period of time. Because you use this form of medicine locally, there are usually fewer side effects and interactions than with systemic medicines.

On the other hand, with anti-inflammatory patches it is difficult to adjust the amount of active ingredient, which can lead to problems, especially when the disease changes quickly. If you want to continue to treat one area of the body, you will either have to buy a larger patch or use other forms of medicine. It can also be annoying if the patch keeps falling off.

Buying criteria: These are some of the factors you can use to compare and evaluate anti-inflammatory medicines

In the following sections, we will show you which aspects you can use to decide on a particular anti-inflammatory medicine.

The criteria you can use to compare different products are:

Below we explain what to look for in each criterion.

Area of application

When considering your purchase, you should always take into account the inflamed area for which you need the medication.

Some medicines are only intended for external use, while others can only be used internally. Furthermore, there are anti-inflammatory medicines that are suitable for almost the entire body, whereas others focus on relieving symptoms in one or more specific areas of the body.

The following table should give you a better idea of which areas can be affected:

Scope examples of inflammation
Skin acne, eczema, sunburn
Mucous membranes oralmucositis, gingivitis
Sensory organs and glandular tissues eye inflammation
Upper and lower respiratory tract pneumonia, tonsillitis, sinusitis
Musculoskeletalsystem Joint inflammation, muscle inflammation, tendonitis, bone inflammation, inflammatory rheumatic diseases
Internal organs heart muscle inflammation, liver inflammation, kidney inflammation, inflammation of the sexual organs
Digestive system inflammation of the stomach lining, chronic inflammatory bowel diseases
Nerves carpal tunnel syndrome

Many parts of our body have special conditions for which some forms of administration and active substances are more suitable than others because they work better there and/or can cause less additional damage.

Dosage form

The area of application and the mode of action determine the dosage form.

As we have already shown in the decision section of this topic page, anti-inflammatory medicines come in different forms. The best known are ointments, creams and gels, tablets and capsules, solutions and patches.

Which form is best for you depends, among other things, on the area of application and the desired type of effect. Tablets, capsules and solutions are mainly for internal, systemic treatment, while ointments, creams, gels and plasters are more for external, local treatment of inflammation.

Mode of action

Another criterion you should consider when making your purchase decision is the desired effect of your anti-inflammatory medication. You can basically distinguish between the following effects:

  • anti-inflammatory
  • analgesic
  • antipyretic
  • cooling
  • decongestant
  • antipruritic
  • promotes wound healing

Anti-inflammatory drugs usually have several effects at the same time, whereby the inhibition of inflammation is sometimes more, sometimes less important. Which effect your medicine should ultimately achieve can usually be determined by the symptoms.

Ingredients

The ingredients you choose and their dosage should be appropriate for the type and extent of your inflammation.

The way an anti-inflammatory medicine works is based on what ingredients it is made up of. The right ingredients will suit the nature and extent of your inflammation, as well as your general physical conditions, and should be compatible with other medications you are taking.

Once you have decided on a medicine with certain ingredients, you should also consider the right dosage and possible side effects. It is best to discuss this with a doctor or pharmacist before taking the medicine to avoid any undesirable consequences.

Facts worth knowing about anti-inflammatory drugs

How long can I take anti-inflammatory medicines?

How long you can take an anti-inflammatory medicine depends on a number of factors, such as your inflammation, the ingredients and the dosage. To be sure, you should consult a doctor or pharmacist and read the package leaflet.

In general, however, it can be said that prolonged use is not advisable, as otherwise unpleasant side effects may become apparent. In addition, if you take certain substances for too long, your body may become accustomed to them, so that at some point you will need a higher dose to achieve the same effect as before. Here, too, you should find out in advance whether this applies to your medicine.

Photo source: Chiosea/ 123rf.com

References (20)

1. Liu, Dora; Ahmet, Alexandra; Ward, Leanne; Krishnamoorthy, Preetha; Mandelcorn, Efrem D; Leigh, Richard; Brown, Jacques P; Cohen, Albert; Kim, Harold (2013). "A practical guide to the monitoring and management of the complications of systemic corticosteroid therapy". Allergy, Asthma and Clinical Immunology. 9(1): 30.
Source

2. Barnes, Peter J (2006). "How corticosteroids control inflammation: Quintiles Prize Lecture 2005." British Journal of Pharmacology. 148(3): 245-254.
Source

3. Gunaydin, Caner; Bilge, S. Sirri (2018). "Effects of Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs at the Molecular Level." The Eurasian Journal of Medicine. 50(2): 116-121. 
Source

4. Furst, Daniel E. (2010). "The Risk of Infections with Biologic Therapies for Rheumatoid Arthritis." Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism. 39(5): 327–346.
Source

5. Barnes, Peter J.; Adcock Ian M (2009). "Glucocorticoid resistance in inflammatory diseases." The Lancet. 373(9678): 1905–1917.
Source

6. Johannesdottir, Sigrun A. (2013). "Use of Glucocorticoids and Risk of Venous Thromboembolism – A Nationwide Population-Based Case-Control Study." JAMA Internal Medicine. 173(9): 743–752.
Source

7. Keenan, P.A.; Jacobson, M.W.; Soleymani, R.M.; Mayes, M.D.; Stress, M.E.; Yaldoo, D.T. (1996). "The effect on memory of chronic prednisone treatment in patients with systemic disease". Neurology. 47(6): 1396-1402.
Source

8. Mohamadi, A.; Chan, J.J.; Claessen, F.M.; Ring, D.; Chen, N.C. (2017). "Corticosteroid Injections Give Small and Transient Pain Relief in Rotator Cuff Tendinosis: A Meta-Analysis". Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research. 475(1): 232–243.
Source

9. Klein, N.C.; Go, C.H.; Cunha, B.A. (2001). "Infections associated with steroid use". Infectious Disease Clinics of North America. 15(2): 423–432.
Source

10. Fardet, L.; Petersen, I.; Nazareth, I. (2012). "Risk of cardiovascular events in people prescribed glucocorticoids with iatrogenic Cushing’s Syndrome: cohort study." BMJ. 345: e4928.
Source

11. Rossi, Simone (Ed.) (2006). AMH 2006. Adelaide: Australian Medicines Handbook.
Source

12. Sondergaard, K.B.; Weeke, P.; Wissenberg, M.; Schjerning Olsen, AM; Fosbol, E.L.; Lippert, F.K.; Torp-Pedersen, C.; Gislason, G.H.; Folke, F. (2017). "Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug use is associated with increased risk of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: a nationwide case–time–control study." European Heart Journal - Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy. 3(2): 100–107.
Source

13. Coxib and traditional NSAID Trialists’ Collaboration (2013). "Vascular and upper gastrointestinal effects of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: meta-analyses of individual participant data from randomised trials." The Lancet. 382(9894): 769-779.
Source

14. Wolfe, M.M.; Lichtenstein, D.R.; Singh, G. (1999). "Gastrointestinal toxicity of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs." The New England Journal of Medicine. 340: 1888–1899.
Source

15. Su, B.; O'Connor, J.P. (2013). "NSAID therapy effects on healing of bone, tendon, and the enthesis." Journal of Applied Physiology. 115(6): 892–899.
Source

16. Menon, Venugopal P.; Sudheer, Adluri Ram (2007). "Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of curcumin." Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. 595: 105–125.
Source

17. Agarwal, K.A.; Tripathi, C.D.; Agarwal, B.B.; Saluja, S. (2011). "Efficacy of turmeric (curcumin) in pain and postoperative fatigue after laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled study, Surgical Endoscopy. 25: 3805–3810.
Source

18. Funk, J.L.; Oyarzo, J.N.; Frye, J.B.; Chen, G.; Lantz, R.C.; Jolad, S.D.; Sólyom, A.M.; Timmermann, B.N. (2006). "Turmeric extracts containing curcuminoids prevent experimental rheumatoid arthritis. Journal of Natural Products. 69(3): 351-355.
Source

19. Barboza, J.N.; da Silva Maia Bezerra Filho, C.; Silva, R.O.; Medeiros, J.V.R.; de Sousa, D.P. (2018). "An Overview on the Anti-inflammatory Potential and Antioxidant Profile of Eugenol." Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity. 2018: 3957262.
Source

20. Weaver, K.L.; Ivester, P.; Seeds, M.; Case, L.D.; Arm, J.P.; Chilton, F.H. (2009). "Effect of Dietary Fatty Acids on Inflammatory Gene." The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 284(23): 15400−15407.
Source

Why you can trust me?

Wissenschaftlicher Artikel
Liu, Dora; Ahmet, Alexandra; Ward, Leanne; Krishnamoorthy, Preetha; Mandelcorn, Efrem D; Leigh, Richard; Brown, Jacques P; Cohen, Albert; Kim, Harold (2013). "A practical guide to the monitoring and management of the complications of systemic corticosteroid therapy". Allergy, Asthma and Clinical Immunology. 9(1): 30.
Go to source
Wissenschaftlicher Artikel
Barnes, Peter J (2006). "How corticosteroids control inflammation: Quintiles Prize Lecture 2005." British Journal of Pharmacology. 148(3): 245-254.
Go to source
Wissenschaftlicher Artikel
Gunaydin, Caner; Bilge, S. Sirri (2018). "Effects of Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs at the Molecular Level." The Eurasian Journal of Medicine. 50(2): 116-121. 
Go to source
Wissenschaftlicher Artikel
Furst, Daniel E. (2010). "The Risk of Infections with Biologic Therapies for Rheumatoid Arthritis." Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism. 39(5): 327–346.
Go to source
Wissenschaftlicher Artikel
Barnes, Peter J.; Adcock Ian M (2009). "Glucocorticoid resistance in inflammatory diseases." The Lancet. 373(9678): 1905–1917.
Go to source
Wissenschaftliche Fall-Kontroll-Studie
Johannesdottir, Sigrun A. (2013). "Use of Glucocorticoids and Risk of Venous Thromboembolism – A Nationwide Population-Based Case-Control Study." JAMA Internal Medicine. 173(9): 743–752.
Go to source
Wissenschaftliche Querschnitts- und Längsschnittsstudien
Keenan, P.A.; Jacobson, M.W.; Soleymani, R.M.; Mayes, M.D.; Stress, M.E.; Yaldoo, D.T. (1996). "The effect on memory of chronic prednisone treatment in patients with systemic disease". Neurology. 47(6): 1396-1402.
Go to source
Wissenschaftliche Meta-Analyse
Mohamadi, A.; Chan, J.J.; Claessen, F.M.; Ring, D.; Chen, N.C. (2017). "Corticosteroid Injections Give Small and Transient Pain Relief in Rotator Cuff Tendinosis: A Meta-Analysis". Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research. 475(1): 232–243.
Go to source
Wissenschaftlicher Artikel
Klein, N.C.; Go, C.H.; Cunha, B.A. (2001). "Infections associated with steroid use". Infectious Disease Clinics of North America. 15(2): 423–432.
Go to source
Wissenschaftliche Kohortenstudie
Fardet, L.; Petersen, I.; Nazareth, I. (2012). "Risk of cardiovascular events in people prescribed glucocorticoids with iatrogenic Cushing’s Syndrome: cohort study." BMJ. 345: e4928.
Go to source
Wissenschaftliches Handbuch
Rossi, Simone (Ed.) (2006). AMH 2006. Adelaide: Australian Medicines Handbook.
Go to source
Wissenschaftliche Fall-Kontroll-Studie
Sondergaard, K.B.; Weeke, P.; Wissenberg, M.; Schjerning Olsen, AM; Fosbol, E.L.; Lippert, F.K.; Torp-Pedersen, C.; Gislason, G.H.; Folke, F. (2017). "Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug use is associated with increased risk of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: a nationwide case–time–control study." European Heart Journal - Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy. 3(2): 100–107.
Go to source
Wissenschaftliche Meta-Analyse
Coxib and traditional NSAID Trialists’ Collaboration (2013). "Vascular and upper gastrointestinal effects of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: meta-analyses of individual participant data from randomised trials." The Lancet. 382(9894): 769-779.
Go to source
Wissenschaftlicher Artikel
Wolfe, M.M.; Lichtenstein, D.R.; Singh, G. (1999). "Gastrointestinal toxicity of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs." The New England Journal of Medicine. 340: 1888–1899.
Go to source
Wissenschaftlicher Artikel
Su, B.; O'Connor, J.P. (2013). "NSAID therapy effects on healing of bone, tendon, and the enthesis." Journal of Applied Physiology. 115(6): 892–899.
Go to source
Wissenschaftlicher Artikel
Menon, Venugopal P.; Sudheer, Adluri Ram (2007). "Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of curcumin." Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. 595: 105–125.
Go to source
Wissenschaftliche Studie
Agarwal, K.A.; Tripathi, C.D.; Agarwal, B.B.; Saluja, S. (2011). "Efficacy of turmeric (curcumin) in pain and postoperative fatigue after laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled study, Surgical Endoscopy. 25: 3805–3810.
Go to source
Wissenschaftlicher Artikel
Funk, J.L.; Oyarzo, J.N.; Frye, J.B.; Chen, G.; Lantz, R.C.; Jolad, S.D.; Sólyom, A.M.; Timmermann, B.N. (2006). "Turmeric extracts containing curcuminoids prevent experimental rheumatoid arthritis. Journal of Natural Products. 69(3): 351-355.
Go to source
Wissenschaftlicher Artikel
Barboza, J.N.; da Silva Maia Bezerra Filho, C.; Silva, R.O.; Medeiros, J.V.R.; de Sousa, D.P. (2018). "An Overview on the Anti-inflammatory Potential and Antioxidant Profile of Eugenol." Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity. 2018: 3957262.
Go to source
Wissenschaftliche Studie
Weaver, K.L.; Ivester, P.; Seeds, M.; Case, L.D.; Arm, J.P.; Chilton, F.H. (2009). "Effect of Dietary Fatty Acids on Inflammatory Gene." The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 284(23): 15400−15407.
Go to source
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