You have heard of ascorbic acid in connection with vitamins, but you are not sure what exactly it is? In common parlance, we understand the vital substance to be vitamin C. Since humans cannot produce vitamin C themselves, we have to take it from food or additives.
If you are thinking about supplementing ascorbic acid, you should consider some important questions before making a purchase. But also for all those who want to learn more about the vital vitamin C, we have answered all the important questions in our large ascorbic acid test 2021.
- 1 Weekly newsletter with the best personal finance tips
- 2 The most important facts
- 3 The Best Ascorbic acid: Our Picks
- 4 Buying and evaluation criteria for ascorbic acid products
- 5 Guide: Questions you should ask yourself before buying ascorbic acid products
- 5.1 What is ascorbic acid and how does it work?
- 5.2 When and for whom is the intake of ascorbic acid useful?
- 5.3 What side effects can occur when taking ascorbic acid?
- 5.4 How much do ascorbic acid products cost?
- 5.5 What types of ascorbic acid are there?
- 5.6 How should ascorbic acid be dosed?
- 5.7 What alternatives are there to ascorbic acid?
- 5.8 What is the difference to vitamin C?
- 5.9 What is the best way to store ascorbic acid products?
- 5.10 Which food additives stand for ascorbic acid?
The most important facts
- Ascorbic acid is a water-soluble substance that is necessary for many metabolic processes in our body. Since we cannot produce ascorbic acid ourselves, we have to take it in through food.
- Many attribute an immune-strengthening effect to vitamin C. However, a cold-preventing or even healing effect has hardly been scientifically proven so far.
- Vitamin C is found in many fruits and vegetables. Our daily diet already provides us with the recommended daily dose.
The Best Ascorbic acid: Our Picks
Buying and evaluation criteria for ascorbic acid products
When buying ascorbic acid, you should pay attention to various aspects. We have identified the most important ones for you and explained them in detail.
By making the right choice for you, you can save money and also ensure that you don't give your body anything it doesn't need. Therefore, always make sure that the products are of high quality and, if necessary, ask to see the manufacturer's certificates.
Ascorbic acid is found in its natural form in fruits and vegetables. This is probably the easiest way to get vitamin C. It is also found in raw vegetables. Raw vegetables in particular still contain all the nutrients. If you cook or heat vegetables too long, the vitamin gets into the water and is thus lost.
The following table gives you an overview of foods that are particularly rich in vitamin C. Note that the vitamin content can vary depending on the degree of ripeness, storage or preparation.
|Food||amount of vitamin C in milligrams per 100 grams of food|
|Red pepper (raw)||120|
Alternatively, you can take pure ascorbic acid in powder or capsule form. Controversial voices claim that the intake of pure ascorbic acid is not as effective as that of natural vitamtin C.
The reason for this is that other molecules in fresh foods promote transfer into the bloodstream.
In a comparative study between pure ascorbic acid in the form of tablets, orange juice, oranges and broccoli, no difference was found in the bioavailability of ascorbic acid. (1)
By encasing it in a lipid shell, the potentially more difficult absorption of pure ascorbic acid can be circumvented. These liposome supplements are also available as powder, capsules or liquid.
In healthy adults, the daily vitamin requirement can be met without problems through food. For adolescents from the age of 15 and adults, the German Nutrition Society recommends a daily vitamin C intake of 95 milligrams for women and 110 milligrams for men.
Pregnant women, smokers and children have a different reference range, which you can find in the advice section below.
More than 150 milligrams of vitamin C can be found in half a raw red pepper and a 125 millilitre glass of fresh orange juice.
Thus, an additional intake of ascorbic acid preparations is not necessary for healthy people. However, if you have a cold or suffer from great physical or mental stress, a limited intake of about 200 milligrams a day may be useful. (2, 3)
Although there is no scientific evidence that ascorbic acid actually reduces the severity or duration of a cold, no harmful effects have been observed from short-term intake of up to 2000 milligrams. (2, 3)
If you take ascorbic acid as a supplement, you should spread the dose throughout the day. Since the body can only absorb a certain amount, the rest is simply excreted.
If you want to take a total of 200 milligrams a day, you should divide it into several portions. This way, you make sure that 200 milligrams actually reach your bloodstream at the end of the day.
If you take vitamin C in powder form, you can easily measure out a portion. Capsules already have a certain dose. Since this is usually quite high, you should check beforehand how long you should really take the supplement.
Area of application
We already consume the recommended daily requirement of vitamin C through a balanced diet. Nevertheless, there are some factors that justify an increased vitamin intake.
- Strengthening the immune system: Since humans cannot produce ascorbic acid themselves, its greatest application is in the health sector. Here, above all, the immune system-strengthening effect is known. However, scientific studies produce different results when it comes to the prevention of colds. (4)
- Increased vitamin requirements: If you are under a lot of physical or mental stress, you can also take high doses of ascorbic acid for a limited period of time. If you also have symptoms of a cold, you can also take high doses of ascorbic acid up to 2000 milligrams daily for this period.
Pregnant and breastfeeding women also have an increased need for vitamin C because their metabolism uses more vitamin C. The same applies to smokers. The same applies to smokers, as tobacco consumption leads to increased free radicals.
If you take aspirin, antibiotics or corticosteroids, the absorption of vitamin C into the blood also decreases. In this case, an additional intake through supplements can be useful.
- Vitamin C deficiency: In our western world, severe vitamin C deficiency is almost non-existent. However, an unbalanced diet can cause the daily requirement to be undercut. Elderly people are particularly susceptible to this, as they often have no appetite, take medication or do not eat fresh food due to problems with their teeth. Ascorbic acid preparations can be taken in such cases, but it is best to discuss this with the family doctor beforehand.
- Skin care: As ascorbic acid is important for our connective tissue, it plays a key role in healthy skin, teeth and bones. (5) Since pure ascorbic acid cannot simply be applied to the skin, a cream with vitamin C is a good choice. Alternatively, a serum can be used, but this should not be applied daily as it can affect the skin's own pH level.
Other areas of application for ascorbic acid are mainly found in cleaning.
- Pool cleaning: Greenish water in the pool is often caused by algae or very ferruginous water. If you look on the internet, you will quickly find the cleaning solution with ascorbic acid. Shortly after adding it, the water becomes crystal clear and seems to be clean. A true miracle cure! But despite the great result, ascorbic acid does not fight the cause. It only converts trivalent iron hydroxide into a non-visible divalent iron hydroxide. This will give your pool a greenish glow again after a short time.
- Removal of tea stains: If you like to drink a lot of tea, you will have brown tea rims in almost every cup. These can be cleaned quickly and easily with vitamin C powder. Simply pour a small teaspoon of powder into hot water and let it stand for a few minutes. After rinsing, the cup is clean and any residue from the vitamin C powder should have no health consequences.
Ascorbic acid also reduces the brown colouring of freshly cut fruit and, together with nitrite curing salt, ensures that meat retains its red colour. This is also the reason why you will find ascorbic acid as an ingredient in many foods.
When should you stop taking ascorbic acid in the form of supplements?
- Hypersensitivity: Basically, of course, if you have a hypersensitivity to ascorbic acid. This would manifest itself in the form of gastrointestinal problems or diarrhoea.
- Kidney insufficiency: Since excess vitamin C can hardly be stored in the body, too much ascorbic acid is excreted through the urine. This means more work for the kidneys, so you should be careful if your kidneys are not working properly.
- Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency: If you have a congenital deficiency of the enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, an increased dose of ascorbic acid can destroy more red blood cells.
Basically, if you have any problems or known medical conditions, you should ask your doctor before taking vitamin supplements. Even though vitamin C is a vital substance for our body, you actually take enough vitamin C with a balanced diet.
Guide: Questions you should ask yourself before buying ascorbic acid products
What is ascorbic acid and how does it work?
A lack of vitamin C leads to connective tissue weakness and, after a longer period of time, to scurvy. This seafarer's disease also gave ascorbic acid its name. Ascorbic acid means anti-scurvy acid.
Chemically, ascorbic acid is a water-soluble solid with the molecular formula C6H8O6. This structure can occur in four different spatial arrangements (four different stereoisomeric forms), whereby only the L-(+)-ascorbic acid has biological activity and thus, strictly speaking, only this structural form can be called vitamin C.
As an antioxidant, ascorbic acid has a strong reducing effect. This means that it gives off electrons in a chemical reaction. The function as a reducing agent is important for many metabolic activities in the body.
Vitamin C plays a key role in many parts of our body. Below we have explained the most important ways ascorbic acid works. First of all, however, it is important that you bear in mind that not all reaction pathways and mechanisms of action have been fully clarified to date.
Strengthening the immune system
Ascorbic acid protects the cell membrane of so-called phagocytes. Phagocytes attack invading substances and break them down. By protecting the phagocyte membrane, the body's own defence system can be strengthened, which gives vitamin C its immune-strengthening effect. (7)
Leukocytes, i.e. white blood cells, are essential for our immune defence. A high content of ascorbic acid was found in these, which suggests that ascorbic acid is necessary for our immune defence. (8)
However, the benefit of vitamin C for defence and prevention of diseases like colds is still scientifically controversial. Major reviews show a general trend towards a moderately positive effect of vitamin C on the course of illness. However, a measurable prophylactic effect could not be measured. (4, 9, 10)
In general, it is clear that we need vitamin C. Since we show deficiency symptoms when our intake is too low, it is undisputed that we need to take ascorbic acid. The positive effects on various metabolic pathways are complex and in some cases very controversial.
Vitamin C is an important coenzyme for the synthesis, i.e. production, of collagen. Collagen is found primarily in tendons, ligaments and cartilage. In other words, in connective tissue in general. But collagen fibres are also present in layers of the skin and blood vessels, which ensure the elasticity and tension of the respective structures.
Ascorbic acid can increase the synthesis capacity of collagen.
It follows from this that a deficiency of ascorbic acid promotes inflammation and degradation of connective tissue. This becomes visible, for example, through bleeding gums or joint pain. Taking enough vitamin C maintains bone density, which is especially crucial for women after menopause. (11)
Collagen is found, for example, in vision, ligaments, bones or cartilage.
Since collagen is found in almost all organs and tissues of our body, ascorbic acid plays a crucial role in maintaining our bodily functions. Our body can only produce amino acids, proteins and hormones if we ensure a sufficient supply.
Reduction of free radicals
Because ascorbic acid can give off electrons very easily, i.e. it has an oxidative effect, it works well as a scavenger of free radicals. These cell-damaging oxygen compounds are produced during normal metabolic processes, but also by UV radiation or nicotine.
In the further course, free radicals can lead to arteriosclerosis, which is one of the main risk factors for cardiovascular diseases.
In connection with cardiovascular diseases, a study from 1998 shows that vitamin C protects LDL cholesterol from oxidation by free radicals. Oxidised LDL cholesterol can cause inflammation and deposits within vascular walls. (12)
However, these results are no longer up to date and should therefore be viewed with caution. In addition, the study mainly refers to the release of free radicals after increased exercise. (13)
However, the result is supported by a study published in 2003, which attributes a lower risk of coronary heart disease to users of vitamin C preparations. (13)
A more recent study from 2008, on the other hand, found no preventive effect of ascorbic acid supplementation on cardiovascular disease. (14)
Basically, however, one more kiwi a day will not harm the heart or our blood vessels. Vitamin C is necessary for us and should be taken daily. (15)
However, whether an increased intake through ascorbic acid supplementation leads to increased positive effects on the cardiovascular system remains questionable. (15)
When and for whom is the intake of ascorbic acid useful?
Since there is still a lot of controversy about the effect of vitamin C, we will show you the current state of research with scientific evidence and studies.
Even grandma said that vitamin C keeps the immune system fit and protects against colds.
This preventive effect of vitamin C is widely known, which is why people are advised to drink more hot tea with lemon or take vitamin supplements during the cold season.
However, we already consume the majority of our daily requirement of vitamin C through our daily food. Some doctors are of the opinion that this intake is completely sufficient for healthy people with a normal diet.
Doctor Eckart von Hirschhausen, for example, explains in his book "Wunder wirken Wunder: Wie Medizin und Magie uns heilen" (Miracles work wonders: How medicine and magic heal us) why he believes that vitamin preparations are just a pharmaceutical business. (16)
Among many other scientific proofs, he cites a review paper that shows that vitamin C has no effect as a cold preventative. (4)
No significant difference in the frequency of illness could be found in the more than 10,000 test participants, which calls the preventive effect of vitamin C into question. Only the duration of the cold could be slightly shortened.
On the other hand, the immune-strengthening effect is firmly anchored in people's minds and is confirmed by several studies. For example, in studies from 2002 and 2006, fewer colds were found in test groups that took extra vitamin C. The effect of vitamin C on the immune system is also confirmed by some studies. (9, 10)
The fact is that our body needs ascorbic acid. We need to consume this in order to be able to carry out vital metabolic processes.
Since we find plenty of natural vitamin C in fresh vegetables and fruit, it can't hurt to eat one more kiwi a day if you feel like you're getting sick. However, whether you can effectively fight your cold with extra vitamin supplements remains questionable.
There are also some studies that suggest that high-dose vitamin C intake can improve tumour control during chemotherapeutic cancer treatments.
Particularly relevant here is the review by Heidi Fritz published in 2014, which compared studies of intravenously administered vitamin C in different doses in cancer patients. (18)
The results show that so far there are only a limited number of clinical studies that provide valid evidence on the effectiveness of vitamin C injections in cancer patients.
However, existing evidence suggests that high-dose vitamin C has high anti-tumour activity and is well tolerated. Thus, it could alleviate the symptoms of cancer patients and significantly improve their quality of life. (18)
According to the study by Claudia Vollbracht from 2011, accompanying symptoms of breast cancer patients should be alleviated by high-dose vitamin C. Especially the consequences of chemotherapy such as fatigue or listlessness are said to be less. (17)
However, these results should always be viewed with a certain degree of caution. The authors of the study "The Controversial Place of Vitamin C in Cancer Treatment" also point out that there are many different results for the treatment of cancer and its symptoms. (19) It is important that more research be done in this area.
A clear sign for an increased intake of vitamin C are deficiency symptoms. According to the German Nutrition Society, however, most people in Germany are not affected by a vitamin deficiency. (20, 21)
Nevertheless, an unbalanced diet or chronic gastrointestinal disease can lead to an undersupply. A severe vitamin C deficiency is called scurvy. Typical symptoms are as follows.
- Bleeding gums
- Delayed wound healing
- Water retention in tissues
- Joint pain
- Bleeding on skin and in organs
However, these symptoms only appear after about three months without fresh fruit or vegetables, so that a severe vitamin C deficiency is hardly ever present in our country. A long-term vitamin C deficiency can also lead to cardiovascular diseases or cataracts. (22)
Our bodies metabolise more products during physical exertion. Especially those who do a lot of sport need reserves to build up new muscle mass or repair minor muscle tears.
Since ascorbic acid is crucial in building connective tissue, there is reason to believe that vitamin C counteracts muscular fatigue. However, there is no convincing data to confirm a positive effect of vitamin C in sports. (23)
However, it is undisputed that a healthy and balanced diet should be taken into account during physical activity. Since this also includes fresh vegetables and fruit, the daily vitamin C requirement is often already covered through natural intake. (24)
Even though pregnant women should avoid some foods, vitamin C is definitely not one of them. If you eat a balanced and healthy diet, you will have all the important vitamins you need during pregnancy.
In a review published in 2015, the Cochrane Library showed that additional vitamin C intake during pregnancy has hardly any effects. Only a few studies could show a reduction in premature ruptures of the bladder in women who took 100 milligrams of vitamin C daily. (25)
Since vitamin C also promotes iron absorption, this can also have a positive effect on the blood count. This applies not only to pregnant women, but also to menstruating women or people who generally have a reduced iron content.
Women after the menopause
During the menopause, the hormone system changes and the body secretes less oestrogen. As a result, the skin becomes thinner and loses elasticity. Since ascorbic acid plays an important part in collagen formation, an increased intake during and after the menopause can be useful.
In a study published in 2009, the mineral density of the bones of almost 1000 postmenopausal women was compared. The results suggest that an increased vitamin C intake increases this bone density. (11)
Since bones are also components of the connective tissue, it is important to ensure a balanced vitamin intake, especially after the menopause.
What side effects can occur when taking ascorbic acid?
The only side effects were diarrhoea and occasional gastrointestinal complaints. These were due to the fact that unabsorbed ascorbic acid is highly hydrophilic and can therefore lead to watery stools.
Since ascorbic acid promotes the absorption of iron into the bloodstream, the dosage should be adjusted if iron preparations are taken at the same time.
Even with a vitamin C intake above the recommended daily dose (approx. 90 milligrams, further details are given below), no side effects are to be expected in the short term. As ascorbic acid is water-soluble, it cannot and is not stored in the body, but is excreted in the urine.
With daily increased vitamin C intake, this can eventually lead to kidney stones. This is because ascorbic acid is broken down in the body to oxalic acid, which is a component of kidney stones. (26)
People with a predisposition to kidney stones or renal insufficiency should therefore use vitamin supplements with caution and prefer to take normal amounts of vitamin C naturally.
How much do ascorbic acid products cost?
The following table gives you an overview of the price range of ascorbic acid products.
|Vitamin C - powder||2-7 euros|
|Vitamin C - capsules/tablet||10-25 euros for 100 pieces|
|Vitamin C - effervescent tablets||8-10 euros for 100 pieces|
|Vitamin C - serum||10-35 euros for 30 millilitres|
However, vitamin C serum should only be applied in very small doses and is mainly used for skin care.
Of course, you can also take natural vitamin C in the form of fruit or vegetables. Sea buckthorn, for example, has a very high vitamin C content. You can get a litre of sea buckthorn nectar for about 15 euros.
What types of ascorbic acid are there?
We need ascorbic acid for many metabolic processes in our body. We can either consume synthetic ascorbic acid or process vitamin C from food.
We have described both options in more detail below and listed the advantages and disadvantages.
How should ascorbic acid be dosed?
Other factors can also influence the requirement. For example, the daily requirement may be higher during breastfeeding or in the case of great physical and mental stress. The following table gives you an overview of how much vitamin C you should consume per day.
|Age||women: Milligrams per day||Men: Milligrams per day|
|0 - 4 years||20||20|
|4 -7 years||30||30|
|7 - 10 years||45||45|
|10 - 13 years||65||65|
|13 - 15 years||85||85|
|15 - 65 years and older||95||110|
We should cover this vitamin C requirement with our daily food. Fresh fruit and vegetables already contain many vitamins. A further intake of ascorbic acid preparations is sometimes seen more as a trend in the health industry.
With a balanced diet, no further intake is needed. On the contrary. Since our body can only store vitamin C to a limited extent, excess ascorbic acid is excreted through the urine. If ascorbic acid intake is regularly increased, this can lead to kidney stones or acidosis of the gastrointestinal tract. (2, 26)
What alternatives are there to ascorbic acid?
Most vitamin supplements contain synthetic ascorbic acid. However, you can also get food supplements with natural vitamin C. There are sea buckthorn oils, for example. For example, you can get sea buckthorn oils or lozenges made from acerola cherries. These foods naturally contain a lot of vitamin C and are gently processed into tablets or powder.
As an alternative to processed ascorbic acid products, you can of course always buy fresh fruit or vegetables. Exotic fruits such as camu camu berries or acerola cherries are particularly rich in vitamins.
But local fruit and vegetables are also good. For example, peppers, blackcurrants or rose hips contain a lot of vitamin C.
What is the difference to vitamin C?
In order to have a uniform naming convention, ascorbic acid has been renamed vitamin C. Thus, there is actually no difference between ascorbic acid and vitamin C.
However, ascorbic acid can exist in different chemical structures. Only L-ascorbic acid and a few other forms can actually be converted in our body and used as a vitamin. Dehydroascorbic acid (DHA), for example, can also be converted to L-ascorbic acid and thus be used as vitamin C.
What is the best way to store ascorbic acid products?
- protected from light
- hermetically sealed
Ascorbic acid is particularly sensitive to light and temperature. Fresh fruit loses all its vitamin C content after a few weeks at room temperature. Even though you probably rarely leave fruit lying around for so long, it shows that you prefer to store apples and the like at around 0 degrees.
Light and high temperatures decompose the ascorbic acid. This is especially crucial when cooking. Here, the vegetables lose about half of their vitamin content. When steamed, only about a quarter of the vitamin is lost. To some extent, frozen food can contain more vitamin C than fresh food, but it has been in the supermarket or at home for several days.
It is best to store ascorbic acid preparations in the bedroom. In the kitchen or bathroom, there is often high humidity and widely fluctuating temperatures.
If you use ascorbic acid preparations, make sure they are stored in a cool and dry place. Again, high temperatures can affect the effectiveness and render your supplement useless.
You should also make sure that tins or packets are always hermetically sealed. Since ascorbic acid reacts with oxygen in the air, the vitamin C content can drop.
Which food additives stand for ascorbic acid?
- Canned fruit and vegetables
- Fruit juices and nectars
- Jam, jelly, marmalade
- Meat and sausage products
- Bread and baking mixes
- Beer and wine
As an additive in flour or flour products, ascorbic acid serves as a leavening agent and is said to enlarge the dough. Meat products retain their typical red colour due to ascorbic acid.
Names for ascorbic acid or ascobic acid-like additives are E300, E301, E302, E304a, E304b.
Image source: Slepko / 123rf
Die Studie zeigt, dass es keinen Unterschied in der Aufnahme von Vitamin C aus Orangen, Organgesaft oder synthetischer Ascorbinsäure gibt. Gemessen wurde die Bioverfügbarkeit von Ascorbinsäure im Blutspiegel.
Eine ganze Reihe von Daten zeigt, dass Vitamin C bis zu einer Einnahme von 2000 mg pro Tag sicher ist.
Vitamin C ist für viele Zellen wichtig. So auch für Fresszellen, die ein Bestandteil des Immunsystems sind. Bei einem Mangel an Vitamin C kann das Immunsystem somit nicht optimal arbeiten.
Weder die Stärke noch die Dauer einer Erkältung konnte durch Vitamin C positiv beeinflusst werden.
Vitamin C kann effizient gegen Hautalterung durch UV Strahlung sein, da es für die Kollagensynthese zuständig ist.
1747 wurde Orangensaft als Mittel gegen Zahnfleischbluten und Einblutungen identifiziert. Seitdem ist die Wirkung von Vitamin C für unseren Stoffwechsel nicht mehr wegzudenken.
Bei Mäusen wurde festgestellt, dass eine erhöhte Ascorbinsäurekonzentration das körpereigene Absterben von T Zellen hemmt, welche Bestandteil des Immunsystems sind.
Ascorbinsäure wurde als Bestandteil von Leucozyten identifiziert. Bei Infekten wurde eine schnellere und vermehrte Aufnahme von Vitamin C in die Zelle festgestellt.
Verglichen wurde eine Gruppe, die 60 Tage lang zwei mal am Tag Vitamin C Tabletten einnahmen mit einer Placebo Gruppe. Die Vitamin C Gruppe hatte signifikant weniger Erkältungen über den Untersuchungszeitraum von November bis Februar.
Über den Untersuchungszeitraum von fünf Jahren konnte festgestellt werden, dass die Einnahme von Vitamin C zu weniger Erkältungen führt. Die Dauer und Stärke konnte jedoch nicht verringert werden.
Frauen, die sowohl Östrogen als auch Vitamin C einnahmen zeigten eine höhere Knochenmineraliendichte als Frauen, die nichts einnahmen oder nur Vitamin C.
Vor allem nach Sport und Ausbelastungen hemmt Ascrobinsäure den Anstoeg von LDL Cholesterin.
Nach Untersuchung von etwa 85 000 Frauen über 16 Jahre wurde ein geringeres Risiko für koronare Herzkrankheiten festgestellt, wenn die Vitamin C Einnahme höher war.
In dieser Langzeitstudie über 10 Jahre an etwa 15 000 Probanden konnte keine Verringerung für Herz- Kreislauferkrankungen bei Männern mittleren Alters festgestellt werden.
Große Kohortenstudien in den USA zeigten keine Effekte von Vitamin C und Vitamin E Aufnahme in Bezug auf die Sterberate durch kardiovaskulären Krankheiten.
Dr. Eckart von Hirschhausen zeigt in seinem Buch Studien auf, die keine positive Wirkung von Vitamin C Präperaten festellen konnten.
Vitamin C hatte einen positiven Effekt unter anderem auf den Appetit, Müdigkeit, Depressionen oder Schlafstörungen nach Chemotherapien bei Brustkrebspatientinnen.
Nur wenige Studien haben die Sicherheit und Effektivität von Vitamin C bei Krebspatienten untersucht. Ergebisse tendieren zu einem guten Antitumormittel, vor allem, weil es gut vertragen wurde.
Da sowohl positive als auch neutrale Ergebnisse in Studien zur Krebsbehandlung mit Vitamin C gefunden wurden, bleibt eine klare Aussage bisher offen.
In Deutschland ist die Mehrheit ausreichend mit Vitaminen versorgt.
Unterteilung der Vitaminversorgung in Deutschland nach Lebensphasen. Die Referenzwerte werden erreicht.
Längerfristiger Mangel an Vitamin C kann unterschiedliche Folgen haben, wie zum Beispiel erhöhtes kariovaskuläres Risiko oder auch grauer Star.
Es konnte kein leistungssteigernder Effekt von Antioxidanzien wie Vitamin C gefunden werden.
Ernährungsempfehlungen für Athleten. Je nach Trainingsphase, Körperkomposition und Ernährungsverhalten muss auch unterschiedliche Nahrung geachtet werden.
Fehlgeburten, Totgeburten oder Frühgeburten können durch eine erhöhte Vitamin C Einnahme wöhrend der Schwangerschaft nicht verhindert werden. Eine Verringerung von vorzeitigen Blasensprüungen konnte jedoch gefunden werden.
Ascorbinsäureeinnahme wird mit einem höheren Risiko für Nierensteine in Verbindung gebracht. Bei Multivitaminen wurde dieser Fund nicht bestätigt.
Dehydroascorbinsäure kann in vielen Geweben aus Ascorbinsäure gebildet werden. Die Rückwandlung findet jedoch nur in der Leber statt.