Last updated: August 11, 2021

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Ginkgo Biloba is the world's best-selling herbal dietary supplement and has been used in Asian medicine for over a thousand years. (1) Ginkgo is used for a wide range of conditions and is said to bring relief from illness naturally.

In our Ginkgo Biloba Test 2021 we introduce you to various Ginkgo Biloba products. We explain the effects and side effects of Ginkgo Biloba and help you find the best preparation for you.




The most important facts

  • Ginkgo medicines consist of the extract of Ginkgo Biloba leaves. The leaves of Ginkgo Biloba are said to have many positive effects on body and mind due to their ingredients.
  • There are almost no side effects with Ginkgo Biloba. Ginkgolic acid can cause mild side effects, but it is rarely found in medicines.
  • Ginkgo biloba is available in many forms, from tablets to shampoo.

Ginkgo Biloba Test: Editors' Favourites

There are many ginkgo products on the market. We have informed ourselves for you and put together the 4 most popular Ginkgo Biloba supplements.

Buying and evaluation criteria for Ginkgo Biloba products

To help you find the best product for you, we will now present some buying and evaluation criteria. When buying ginkgo products, you can use the following criteria as a guide:

When buying food supplements, you should always make sure that the products come from a trustworthy manufacturer and are of good quality.

Dosage form

Which form of Ginkgo Biloba is right for you depends on what you want to treat. For the treatment of your skin, a cream, a tincture or a shampoo is recommended.

For the treatment of internal diseases, you should choose a preparation that you can take orally. Tablets, capsules, extracts or tea can be used for this.

The type of Ginkgo Biloba preparation you choose affects, among other things, the dosage of Ginkgo Biloba. While tablets, capsules and extracts are very highly concentrated, tea has only a low concentration of active ingredient.

Dosage

The concentrations of ginkgo preparations vary greatly. Whether you need low-dose or high-dose Ginkgo Biloba depends on what you want to treat with it and how severe your symptoms are.

We often make the mistake of thinking that a lot helps a lot. However, this is not true. Especially if you are taking other medications, the dosage should not be too high, otherwise there may be interactions with your other medications.

It is best to discuss the dosage and concentration with your doctor or pharmacist. He or she can tell you how much the preparation should be concentrated for your purposes.

Note whether the packet states the concentration of the dry extract or the amount of leaf. The concentration of the dry extract has a 50:1 ratio to the concentration of the leaf amount.

Therefore, a product with 300 mg dry extract is a high-dose preparation. A preparation with 300 mg leaf quantity, on the other hand, is a low-dose preparation.

Package size

Depending on how long you want to take Ginkgo Biloba, different pack sizes are recommended.

Ginkgo Biloba needs a certain amount of time to show its effect. Therefore, we advise you to take a pack size that lasts at least 6 weeks.

If you want to take Ginkgo Biloba on a long-term basis, you should discuss this with your doctor. When he or she determines the treatment period, he or she will also recommend the appropriate package size.

Preparation

Ginkgo Biloba is a plant-based medicine and therefore basically vegan.

Ginkgo capsules are an exception. The shell is often made of gelatine, so the capsules are not always vegan. It is best to pay attention to the manufacturer's information.

For preparations with added ingredients, you should always check whether they are also vegan.

Guide: Frequently asked questions about ginkgo biloba products answered in detail

In order to inform you comprehensively about the effect of Ginkgo Biloba and to give you an understanding of the current state of science, we have summarised all the important information in the following sections.

What is Ginkgo Biloba and how does it work?

Ginkgo Biloba is the name for the ginkgo tree. It is native to China and is the only representative of the Ginkgoales, an otherwise extinct group of seed plants.

Ginkgo Biloba-1

Ginkgo leaves, seeds and roots have been used in traditional Chinese medicine for over a thousand years. (Image source: Uki_71 / pixabay)

Ginkgo leaves, seeds and roots are a remedy of traditional Chinese medicine. The seeds of the Ginkgo Biloba also play a role in Asian cuisine. They are boiled and then the core of the seed is served with rice dishes.

In Europe, ginkgo biloba is mainly known from its medicinal use as a medicine and food supplement.

There are many studies on the effects of Ginkgo Biloba. They show many positive effects of Ginkgo Biloba, but are mostly too small to make reliable statements about the effect of Ginkgo Biloba. (2, 3, 4, 5)

Effects on Alzheimer's and dementia

Ginkgo Biloba is often used for the treatment of early stages of Alzheimer's disease. (6) Ginkgo Biloba can have a positive effect on mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. (7) Several studies showed that Ginkgo Biloba can alleviate dementia symptoms. (6, 8)

Taking Ginkgo Biloba can improve the cognitive flexibility of those affected. However, an improvement in brain activity was not measurable. This means that the processing efficiency of the treated persons increased. (9)

According to one study, treatment with Ginkgo Biloba stabilised or slowed down the progression of dementia over a period of 22 to 26 weeks. (10) A long-term study contradicts the study. According to this study, Ginkgo Biloba does not slow down the progression of Alzheimer's disease. (11)

Effect on tinnitus

Ginkgo biloba is a common remedy in the treatment of tinnitus. (12) Tinnitus or ringing in the ears is a heavy burden for those affected, which often cannot be treated with medication.

Ginkgo Biloba-2

Ginkgo Biloba is said to have a variety of effects. The studies on Gingko Biloba are often too small to make reliable statements. (Image source: Marzena P. / pixabay)

The studies on the effectiveness of Ginkgo Biloba on tinnitus contradict each other (13)

Since tinnitus is a disease with many facets, it is recommended to coordinate a treatment with Ginkgo Biloba individually with the corresponding doctor. With the correct dosage of Ginkgo Biloba, ear noises can be reduced. (13)

Effect on macular degeneration

Oxidative processes lead to damage of the retina in the eye. Among other things, this can lead to age-related macular degeneration.

In order to reduce oxidative stress, antioxidants such as Ginkgo Biloba can be used. The antioxidant effect of Ginkgo Biloba is said to improve retinal diseases such as macular degeneration. (14)

However, a 6-month study showed no improvement in the vision of patients with macular degeneration. (2)

Effect on high blood pressure

Ginkgo biloba is a promising therapeutic agent for cardiovascular and ischaemic diseases. Ginkgo biloba has a vascular protective function. Therefore, it is a promising remedy for high blood pressure and other ischaemic diseases. (15)

With a complementary treatment with Ginkgo Biloba, positive effects on blood pressure can be observed. (3)

Ginkgo Biloba-3

Ginkgo can also be administered to animals such as dogs and horses. (Image source: R+R Medicinals / unsplash)

We have focused on the most researched effects of ginkgo in this article. Many other effects are attributed to ginkgo biloba, which we will not go into in more detail due to a lack of evidence.

Other effects of Ginkgo Biloba include a calming effect on ADHD patients (16) and alleviation of symptoms of premenstrual syndrome (PMS). (17)

The treatment of dogs and horses with Ginkgo Biloba is becoming increasingly popular. However, there are still no studies on the effectiveness of this.

What side effects can Ginkgo Biloba have?

There is the so-called Ginkgo Standard Extract from Ginkgo Extract. It has the official designation EGb 761 and is produced according to the specifications of the European Pharmacopoeia.

There are no specifications or controls for ingredients of supplements.

The European Pharmacopoeia regulates the ingredients of medicinal products. Therefore, there are no health concerns with EGb 761.

Basically, ginkgo biloba is considered a safe food supplement. No severe or life-threatening side effects are known. (5)

Minor side effects such as stomach upset, headache, dizziness, constipation or allergic skin reactions may occur. (5) This is due to the ginkcolic acid in the leaves of the ginkgo. To avoid side effects, many medicines containing ginkgo are reduced in ginkcolic acid.

In combination with warfarin, platelet aggregation inhibitors and certain other medicines, it is suspected that ginkgo biloba promotes bleeding and haematomas. (5, 6)

Ginkgo biloba is also suspected of being a possible human carcinogen. (1)

When and for whom does it make sense to take Ginkgo Biloba?

Basically, you should first clarify the symptoms of your illness with your doctor. He or she can also tell you whether treatment with ginkgo biloba makes sense. If necessary, he or she will prescribe a medicine with the active ingredient Ginkgo Biloba.

Taking ginkgo biloba can be useful for people at different stages of life. Ginkgo Biloba has a wide range of effects and can therefore be used against many different diseases.

Diseases for which you can use Ginkgo Biloba are, for example:

  • ADHD in children and adolescents
  • PMS (premenstrual syndrome)
  • High blood pressure
  • Tinnitus
  • Macular degeneration
  • Dementia and early stages of Alzheimer's disease

These are the most common uses of Ginkgo Biloba in humans. Ginkgo can also be used for dogs or horses.

What types of Ginkgo Biloba products are there?

From tablets to shampoo, there is a wide range of Ginkgo Biloba products. To give you an overview, we have selected the most common types of Ginkgo products for you. A rough distinction can be made between solid and liquid Ginkgo Biloba products.

Ginkgo Biloba type Description
Powder Ginkgo Biloba powder is very highly concentrated, but the amount of active ingredient is difficult to dose.
Tablets and capsules Ginkgo tablets and capsules are available in different concentrations. They are particularly easy to dose.
Cream Ginkgo Biloba cream is suitable for use on skin ulcers.
Tea Ginkgo tea has a lower concentration of active ingredient and is more suitable for consumption.
Drops / tincture Liquid Ginkgo Biloba extract is suitable for oral intake as well as for application on the skin.

In the following we will go further into the different types:

Festes Ginkgo Biloba

Solid Ginkgo Biloba

Solid Ginkgo Biloba is available as powder, tablets, capsules or cream. Powder, tablets and capsules are usually pure Ginkgo Biloba extract.

Solid Ginkgo Biloba Extract

The dry extract of Ginkgo Biloba is obtained directly from the leaves and therefore has a very high concentration of active ingredients.

It is available as a powder, but the amount of active ingredient in powder is difficult to dose.

Ginkgo biloba extracts are also available in the form of capsules and tablets. With these, the amount of active ingredient can be determined much better.

Ginkgo Biloba Tablets and Capsules

Tablets and capsules are particularly practical because they are very easy to use. You simply take a tablet or capsule from the blister or tin and swallow it with enough water.

Ginkgo Biloba capsules and tablets come in many different concentrations. Whether you should prefer a low dosage or a high dosage depends on your symptoms.

If you take up to 240 mg a day, there are no proven interactions with other medicines. (12) If you take a preparation with a higher dosage, you should discuss this with your doctor.

Ginkgo Biloba Cream

Ginkgo biloba cream is said to help with skin ulcers and circulatory problems. The cream also leaves the skin feeling refreshed.

Flüssiges Ginkgo Biloba

Liquid Ginkgo Biloba

Liquid Ginkgo Biloba is available either as a liquid extract or as a tea. While the extract has a high concentration of active ingredients, the concentration of active ingredients in the tea is rather low.

Ginkgo Biloba Tea

Ginkgo Biloba tea has a long tradition in China. Both the dried leaves and the seeds of the ginkgo are used to make the tea.

Ginkgo Biloba-4

Ginkgo tea is considered a food and therefore does not have to contain any specific ingredients.
(Image source: 五玄土 ORIENTO / unsplash)

Tea has a tart taste. It tastes especially good in combination with sweet ingredients or honey.

Ginkgo biloba tea is not considered a medicine, but a food. Therefore, there are no specifications for ingredients and active substances. Therefore, you should regard ginkgo tea as a stimulant and not as a medicine.

You can make the tea yourself from dried ginkgo leaves. Since ginkgo tea should not contain too much ginkgolic acid, we recommend that you buy ginkgo tea. Manufacturers of ginkgo biloba tea reduce the ginkgolic acid content of the tea blend.

Ginkgo Biloba Drops

Ginkgo Biloba drops or tincture can either be drunk or used externally on the skin.

The tincture has a bitter taste. If it is too bitter for you, you can dilute it with a little water. Ginkgo biloba drops are a good alternative if you cannot swallow tablets.

For use on the skin, you can make compresses with ginkgo biloba tincture. This is said to promote blood circulation.

How much do Ginkgo Biloba products cost?

The price of Ginkgo Biloba products depends on the type of product. You can get cheap ginkgo products for just a few euros.

To give you an overview, we have selected the prices of the most popular Ginkgo Biloba products.

Product type Price
Capsules and tablets 4 to 90 euros
Tea 4 to 48 euros
Oil 9 to 30 euros
Cream 5 to 30 euros

The prices for ginkgo products depend mainly on the type of product and the package size.

Which parts of the Ginkgo Biloba plant are used?

In European medicine, the leaves or the extract of the ginkgo leaves are used.

Medicines contain the extract of the ginkgo biloba leaves. Other substances may also be added to creams.

In traditional Chinese medicine, the seeds and root of the ginkgo biloba are used in addition to the leaves.

What are the ingredients of Ginkgo Biloba?

The active substances in the leaf extract of Ginkgo Biloba are secondary plant substances such as flavonoids, terpenoids, sitosterols and anthocyanins.

In the European Pharmacopoeia there are precise specifications on how the extract of Ginkgo Biloba is to be prepared. The Pharmacopoeia specifies the proportions of the active ingredients and includes an upper limit for ginkgolic acid.

There are no specifications for the composition of foodstuffs and food supplements.

Products of this kind can have very different ingredients. Since food and dietary supplements do not require approval, you have to rely on the manufacturer's information about the ingredients.

What alternatives are there to Ginkgo Biloba products?

If you don't want to buy Ginkgo Biloba, we have listed some alternatives for taking Ginkgo Biloba below.

Alternative Description
Medicines Conventional medicines can be used to treat many diseases and symptoms.
Healthy diet A healthy diet helps prevent many diseases. It helps you to grow old healthy and fit.
Sport Regular exercise not only improves your physical health, it also increases your mental fitness.
Brain jogging To keep your brain on its toes, you can regularly solve tricky tasks.

If you take Ginkgo Biloba as a precaution, you can also replace it with a healthy lifestyle. For serious illnesses, Ginkgo Biloba should be seen as an additional therapy and not as a substitute for medical treatment.

How should Ginkgo Biloba be dosed?

Ginkgo Biloba is effective against a variety of diseases and can be taken to treat many symptoms. The treatment of different symptoms requires different dosages.

To find the ideal dosage for you, it is best to talk to your doctor or pharmacist about your symptoms and the right dosage of Ginkgo Biloba as a treatment.

Basically, you should take a maximum of 240 mg a day. Up to this amount, there are no interactions with other medicines. (12)

Image source: saphira / 123rf

References (17)

1. Mei N, Guo X, Ren Z, Kobayashi D, Wada K, Guo L. Review of Ginkgo biloba-induced toxicity, from experimental studies to human case reports. J Environ Sci Health C Environ Carcinog Ecotoxicol Rev. 2017 Jan 2;35(1):1-28. doi: 10.1080/10590501.2016.1278298. PMID: 28055331; PMCID: PMC6373469.
Source

2. Evans JR. Ginkgo biloba extract for age-related macular degeneration. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013 Jan 31;2013(1):CD001775. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD001775.pub2. PMID: 23440785; PMCID: PMC7061350.
Source

3. Xiong XJ, Liu W, Yang XC, Feng B, Zhang YQ, Li SJ, Li XK, Wang J. Ginkgo biloba extract for essential hypertension: a systemic review. Phytomedicine. 2014 Sep 15;21(10):1131-6. doi: 10.1016/j.phymed.2014.04.024. Epub 2014 May 28. PMID: 24877716.
Source

4. Shakibaei F, Radmanesh M, Salari E, Mahaki B. Ginkgo biloba in the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents. A randomized, placebo-controlled, trial. Complement Ther Clin Pract. 2015 May;21(2):61-7. doi: 10.1016/j.ctcp.2015.04.001. Epub 2015 Apr 18. PMID: 25925875.
Source

5. Roland PD, Nergård CS. Ginkgo biloba--effekt, bivirkninger og interaksjoner [Ginkgo biloba--effect, adverse events and drug interaction]. Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2012 Apr 30;132(8):956-9. Norwegian. doi: 10.4045/tidsskr.11.0780. Erratum in: Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2012 Jun 12;132(11):1319. PMID: 22562327.
Source

6. Sierpina VS, Wollschlaeger B, Blumenthal M. Ginkgo biloba. Am Fam Physician. 2003 Sep 1;68(5):923-6. PMID: 13678141.
Source

7. Yang G, Wang Y, Sun J, Zhang K, Liu J. Ginkgo Biloba for Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. Curr Top Med Chem. 2016;16(5):520-8. doi: 10.2174/1568026615666150813143520. PMID: 26268332.
Source

8. Hilton MP, Zimmermann EF, Hunt WT. Ginkgo biloba for tinnitus. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013 Mar 28;(3):CD003852. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD003852.pub3. PMID: 23543524.
Source

9. Beck SM, Ruge H, Schindler C, Burkart M, Miller R, Kirschbaum C, Goschke T. Effects of Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761® on cognitive control functions, mental activity of the prefrontal cortex and stress reactivity in elderly adults with subjective memory impairment - a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Hum Psychopharmacol. 2016 May;31(3):227-42. doi: 10.1002/hup.2534. PMID: 27147264; PMCID: PMC5084772.
Source

10. Tan MS, Yu JT, Tan CC, Wang HF, Meng XF, Wang C, Jiang T, Zhu XC, Tan L. Efficacy and adverse effects of ginkgo biloba for cognitive impairment and dementia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Alzheimers Dis. 2015;43(2):589-603. doi: 10.3233/JAD-140837. PMID: 25114079.
Source

11. Vellas B, Coley N, Ousset PJ, Berrut G, Dartigues JF, Dubois B, Grandjean H, Pasquier F, Piette F, Robert P, Touchon J, Garnier P, Mathiex-Fortunet H, Andrieu S; GuidAge Study Group. Long-term use of standardised Ginkgo biloba extract for the prevention of Alzheimer's disease (GuidAge): a randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet Neurol. 2012 Oct;11(10):851-9. doi: 10.1016/S1474-4422(12)70206-5. Epub 2012 Sep 6. PMID: 22959217.
Source

12. Unger M. Pharmacokinetic drug interactions involving Ginkgo biloba. Drug Metab Rev. 2013 Aug;45(3):353-85. doi: 10.3109/03602532.2013.815200. PMID: 23865865.
Source

13. Mahmoudian-Sani MR, Hashemzadeh-Chaleshtori M, Asadi-Samani M, Yang Q. Ginkgo biloba in the treatment of tinnitus: An updated literature review. Int Tinnitus J. 2017 Jun 1;21(1):58-62. doi: 10.5935/0946-5448.20170011. PMID: 28723603.
Source

14. Martínez-Solís I, Acero N, Bosch-Morell F, Castillo E, González-Rosende ME, Muñoz-Mingarro D, Ortega T, Sanahuja MA, Villagrasa V. Neuroprotective Potential of Ginkgo biloba in Retinal Diseases. Planta Med. 2019 Nov;85(17):1292-1303. doi: 10.1055/a-0947-5712. Epub 2019 Jul 2. PMID: 31266069.
Source

15. Tian J, Liu Y, Chen K. Ginkgo biloba Extract in Vascular Protection: Molecular Mechanisms and Clinical Applications. Curr Vasc Pharmacol. 2017;15(6):532-548. doi: 10.2174/1570161115666170713095545. PMID: 28707602.
Source

16. Lyon MR, Cline JC, Totosy de Zepetnek J, Shan JJ, Pang P, Benishin C. Effect of the herbal extract combination Panax quinquefolium and Ginkgo biloba on attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: a pilot study. J Psychiatry Neurosci. 2001 May;26(3):221-8. PMID: 11394191; PMCID: PMC1408291.
Source

17. Ozgoli G, Selselei EA, Mojab F, Majd HA. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of Ginkgo biloba L. in treatment of premenstrual syndrome. J Altern Complement Med. 2009 Aug;15(8):845-51. doi: 10.1089/acm.2008.0493. PMID: 19678774.
Source

Why you can trust me?

Wissenschaftliche Review
Mei N, Guo X, Ren Z, Kobayashi D, Wada K, Guo L. Review of Ginkgo biloba-induced toxicity, from experimental studies to human case reports. J Environ Sci Health C Environ Carcinog Ecotoxicol Rev. 2017 Jan 2;35(1):1-28. doi: 10.1080/10590501.2016.1278298. PMID: 28055331; PMCID: PMC6373469.
Go to source
Wissenschaftliche Review
Evans JR. Ginkgo biloba extract for age-related macular degeneration. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013 Jan 31;2013(1):CD001775. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD001775.pub2. PMID: 23440785; PMCID: PMC7061350.
Go to source
Wissenschaftliche Review
Xiong XJ, Liu W, Yang XC, Feng B, Zhang YQ, Li SJ, Li XK, Wang J. Ginkgo biloba extract for essential hypertension: a systemic review. Phytomedicine. 2014 Sep 15;21(10):1131-6. doi: 10.1016/j.phymed.2014.04.024. Epub 2014 May 28. PMID: 24877716.
Go to source
Wissenschaftliche Studie
Shakibaei F, Radmanesh M, Salari E, Mahaki B. Ginkgo biloba in the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents. A randomized, placebo-controlled, trial. Complement Ther Clin Pract. 2015 May;21(2):61-7. doi: 10.1016/j.ctcp.2015.04.001. Epub 2015 Apr 18. PMID: 25925875.
Go to source
Wissenschaftlicher Artikel
Roland PD, Nergård CS. Ginkgo biloba--effekt, bivirkninger og interaksjoner [Ginkgo biloba--effect, adverse events and drug interaction]. Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2012 Apr 30;132(8):956-9. Norwegian. doi: 10.4045/tidsskr.11.0780. Erratum in: Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2012 Jun 12;132(11):1319. PMID: 22562327.
Go to source
Wissenschaftliche Review
Sierpina VS, Wollschlaeger B, Blumenthal M. Ginkgo biloba. Am Fam Physician. 2003 Sep 1;68(5):923-6. PMID: 13678141.
Go to source
Wissenschaftliche Review
Yang G, Wang Y, Sun J, Zhang K, Liu J. Ginkgo Biloba for Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. Curr Top Med Chem. 2016;16(5):520-8. doi: 10.2174/1568026615666150813143520. PMID: 26268332.
Go to source
Wissenschaftliche Review
Hilton MP, Zimmermann EF, Hunt WT. Ginkgo biloba for tinnitus. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013 Mar 28;(3):CD003852. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD003852.pub3. PMID: 23543524.
Go to source
Wissenschaftliche Studie
Beck SM, Ruge H, Schindler C, Burkart M, Miller R, Kirschbaum C, Goschke T. Effects of Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761® on cognitive control functions, mental activity of the prefrontal cortex and stress reactivity in elderly adults with subjective memory impairment - a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Hum Psychopharmacol. 2016 May;31(3):227-42. doi: 10.1002/hup.2534. PMID: 27147264; PMCID: PMC5084772.
Go to source
Wissenschaftliche Review
Tan MS, Yu JT, Tan CC, Wang HF, Meng XF, Wang C, Jiang T, Zhu XC, Tan L. Efficacy and adverse effects of ginkgo biloba for cognitive impairment and dementia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Alzheimers Dis. 2015;43(2):589-603. doi: 10.3233/JAD-140837. PMID: 25114079.
Go to source
Wissenschaftliche Review
Vellas B, Coley N, Ousset PJ, Berrut G, Dartigues JF, Dubois B, Grandjean H, Pasquier F, Piette F, Robert P, Touchon J, Garnier P, Mathiex-Fortunet H, Andrieu S; GuidAge Study Group. Long-term use of standardised Ginkgo biloba extract for the prevention of Alzheimer's disease (GuidAge): a randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet Neurol. 2012 Oct;11(10):851-9. doi: 10.1016/S1474-4422(12)70206-5. Epub 2012 Sep 6. PMID: 22959217.
Go to source
Wissenschaftliche Review
Unger M. Pharmacokinetic drug interactions involving Ginkgo biloba. Drug Metab Rev. 2013 Aug;45(3):353-85. doi: 10.3109/03602532.2013.815200. PMID: 23865865.
Go to source
Wissenschaftliche Review
Mahmoudian-Sani MR, Hashemzadeh-Chaleshtori M, Asadi-Samani M, Yang Q. Ginkgo biloba in the treatment of tinnitus: An updated literature review. Int Tinnitus J. 2017 Jun 1;21(1):58-62. doi: 10.5935/0946-5448.20170011. PMID: 28723603.
Go to source
Wissenschaftliche Review
Martínez-Solís I, Acero N, Bosch-Morell F, Castillo E, González-Rosende ME, Muñoz-Mingarro D, Ortega T, Sanahuja MA, Villagrasa V. Neuroprotective Potential of Ginkgo biloba in Retinal Diseases. Planta Med. 2019 Nov;85(17):1292-1303. doi: 10.1055/a-0947-5712. Epub 2019 Jul 2. PMID: 31266069.
Go to source
Wissenschaftliche Review
Tian J, Liu Y, Chen K. Ginkgo biloba Extract in Vascular Protection: Molecular Mechanisms and Clinical Applications. Curr Vasc Pharmacol. 2017;15(6):532-548. doi: 10.2174/1570161115666170713095545. PMID: 28707602.
Go to source
Wissenschaftlicher Artikel
Lyon MR, Cline JC, Totosy de Zepetnek J, Shan JJ, Pang P, Benishin C. Effect of the herbal extract combination Panax quinquefolium and Ginkgo biloba on attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: a pilot study. J Psychiatry Neurosci. 2001 May;26(3):221-8. PMID: 11394191; PMCID: PMC1408291.
Go to source
Wissenschaftliche Studie
Ozgoli G, Selselei EA, Mojab F, Majd HA. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of Ginkgo biloba L. in treatment of premenstrual syndrome. J Altern Complement Med. 2009 Aug;15(8):845-51. doi: 10.1089/acm.2008.0493. PMID: 19678774.
Go to source
Reviews