Last updated: August 15, 2021

Our method

17Products analysed

34Hours spent

32Evaluated articles

73User reviews

Iodine is a trace element and performs many tasks in our body. It participates in important processes. One of them is the production of thyroid hormones, which are responsible for metabolism. Our body cannot produce iodine itself and can only store it to a limited extent. Therefore, you can take it both in food and in the form of food supplements.

In our iodine test 2021 we show you various products that you can take in addition to your diet. We provide you with all the most important information and present the advantages and disadvantages of the individual iodine products. This should help you in your final purchase decision.




The most important information

  • Iodine is an important element that is essential for the production of thyroid hormones. Iodine is equally important during pregnancy, as it is involved in the growth processes of the foetus.
  • You can get iodine supplements in different forms - capsules, tablets, powder or as a solution.
  • It is important to consult a doctor before taking iodine. A deficiency or excess of iodine can have serious consequences for you personally and for your baby.

The Best Iodine: Our Picks

To give you a small overview of the various possible preparations, we would like to present a small selection of iodine products

Buying and evaluation criteria for iodine

Before you decide on an iodine supplement, we recommend that you first compare them with each other. There are a few important criteria that you should keep in mind when buying. The following aspects will help you in your decision:

In the following section, we will go into more detail about the individual criteria so that you understand their importance for your purchase decision.

Dosage form

There are only two ways to take iodine. Either you get the important trace element from food or you buy preparations and supply your body with an additional supplement. Iodine is mainly found in the form of tablets, capsules, powder or as a solution. You have to find out for yourself which form is suitable for you.

Iodine tablets and iodine capsules are probably the classics for many people. However, the capsules are only suitable for you if you have no problem swallowing them. In comparison, you can let the tablets melt in your mouth until it has a more powdery form and swallow the active ingredient.

Iodine drops or powder are easier to take. These are good alternatives if you do not want to take tablets or capsules. You can simply add both iodine preparations to water or mix them with other drinks. Depending on the intensity of the taste, you can also integrate the iodine into your food.

Dosage / Amount

The correct dosage of iodine supplements is important for you. On the one hand, it depends on the iodine content of the food you eat. The higher the iodine content, the less you need to take in food supplements. In addition, the daily requirement is higher for pregnant women, which is why a higher dosage is not a bad choice.

Each supplement has a different high iodine dosage. However, it is also possible to find different levels of iodine in the different forms.

Always consult a doctor first about how much iodine you should take. An overdose can have undesirable consequences.

Algae in particular have a high iodine content. That is why they are mostly used in capsules, but also in other preparations. However, many types of algae contain almost too much iodine, which can lead to side effects. Especially with these preparations, you should first find out how high the iodine content is. Depending on how high the dosage is, you have to adjust or regulate the amount you take.

Additives

Like many food supplements, there is a risk that iodine supplements contain undesirable additives. Therefore, you should always read the manufacturer's instructions carefully. You should avoid additives such as dyes, binders or fillers. These are not good for your body.

Also, not every iodine supplement is suitable for everyone. Allergens such as soy, shellfish or nuts can be found in the various products; however, as an allergy sufferer you should not consume them.

To avoid undesirable consequences, we recommend iodine supplements that are free of any additives. These can inhibit the effect of iodine and may harm your body instead of helping it.

Shelf life

Many users still ask themselves how long an iodine supplement will keep. Depending on how often you take it, you may want to keep a product for a longer period of time. Basically, we can say that iodine products do not go bad and you can continue to take them later.

With iodine solutions or drops, however, you have to bear in mind that the iodine can lose its effect. Every time you open the bottle, it loses a little of its effect, but it does not go bad. Nevertheless, we recommend that you never take iodine supplements without consulting your doctor. Not even those that you find again after months or even years.

Guide: Frequently asked questions about iodine answered in detail

In the following section, we want to inform you about the effectiveness of iodine and give you an understanding of the current state of science. For this purpose, we have summarised all the important information on the topic of iodine.

What is iodine and how does it work?

Iodine is a trace element that is essential for our organism. Since our body cannot produce iodine on its own, we have to take it in through our food. You can use various iodine products as dietary supplements if you cannot maintain your iodine balance through food.

Iodine is involved in important metabolic and growth processes.

As you will see in the following sections, iodine is involved in many processes in the body and is therefore indispensable. It plays an enormously important role for you personally as well as for your baby in case of pregnancy. We would like to tell you about its effects and importance in the following.

Effect on the metabolism

Iodine is an elementary component that contributes greatly to the production of thyroid hormones and to normal thyroid function. As a result, iodine, among other things, influences and regulates our metabolism, making us feel fitter and more balanced. (1, 2, 3)

Whether young or old - support your children in their further development. With iodine you ensure a healthy growth process and metabolism. (Ashton Bingham / unsplash)

Because of iodine's crucial role in the body's metabolism, it is also an essential element for fat metabolism. Initial studies found that iodine can be good as a dietary supplement. It can decisively support weight loss. (4) However, this possible causal connection should be underlined in further studies.

Effect on body composition

Due to the regulation of thyroid hormones, iodine also has an effect on bone and muscle formation. It is therefore significantly involved in the strength and mobility of your body.

With sufficient iodine intake, it supports your musculoskeletal system. In addition, iodine makes an important contribution to muscle regeneration after strenuous physical exertion. (5, 6)

The strength of your body and thus the amount of iodine in your body can affect your energy balance and vitality. If your thyroid hormone levels are too low and your body lacks strength, you will become tired more quickly and feel listless and lacking in energy. With your daily iodine intake you can help your body to have more energy and thus more vitality. (3)

Effect on growth processes

The thyroid hormones, for whose production iodine is responsible in the body, are responsible for the growth processes in your body. This includes the mental and physical development of babies, children and adolescents. (7, 8)

Iodine is essential for the good development of babies and children. (Image source: Peter Oslanec / unsplash)

Iodine plays an important role especially during pregnancy and breastfeeding. It supports the development of nervous systems and the formation of brains in foetuses. You can actively support the health development of your child through supplementation. This is important for both pregnancy and the time after. (1, 7, 8)

Effect on cancer

A study by Rösner et al from 2016 shows that iodine can have a positive effect against cancer cells. It can destroy the dangerous tumour cells. It thus shows a preventive effect against some types of cancer. Good cells are not damaged in the process. (9)

Iodine is also used in the treatment of thyroid and breast cancer.

The thyroid gland absorbs almost all the iodine in the body. Radioactive iodine can therefore help in the treatment of thyroid cancer. This involves destroying the thyroid tissue that could not be removed during surgery. However, this treatment cannot be used for every type of cancer because not every type can absorb iodine. (10, 11)

In addition to treating thyroid cancer, iodine can also help with breast cancer. For one thing, more iodine in the body can generally reduce the likelihood of breast cancer. (12, 13) In addition, iodine supplementation before surgery can reduce the growth rate of cancer cells. (14)

For whom is an iodine supplement useful?

As we have already shown you in the effects, iodine plays an important role and should always be available to your body in sufficient quantities.

The iodine content in food depends primarily on the iodine content in the soil of the growing regions. Since Europe is still one of the regions with a high iodine deficiency, the daily requirement cannot always be guaranteed through the daily diet. (15)

Iodine is essential for all of us. Different groups of people need different amounts of iodine. Inform yourself in good time.

However, the iodine content in the soil is not the only reason why certain regions or groups of people need more iodine than others. The following groups have an increased risk of iodine deficiency and therefore need a higher daily iodine intake (15, 16)

  • Pregnant women
  • Vegetarians and vegans
  • People who do not use iodised salt

Especially for pregnant women and women who are breastfeeding, we recommend a food supplement. The daily requirement is higher than usual and can hardly be covered by the diet. We will show you why iodine intake is so important for pregnant women in a separate section.

What iodine supplements are available?

As with all dietary supplements, there are different types of iodine supplements. Most often, these come in the form of powder, tablets, capsules or as a solution. Actually, the various iodine products only differ in terms of intake and dosage. In the following tables we describe the most important information about the individual preparations.

Preparation Description
Iodine tablets Iodine is sold here in the form of potassium iodide. The powder is pressed into tablet form. This allows it to be dosed accurately and taken easily.
Iodine capsules contain mostly natural iodine from algae. Just like tablets, you can easily dose and take the iodine here. Iodine capsules with vegetable shells are also suitable for vegetarians and vegans.
Iodine drops The solution is a good alternative to tablets and capsules if you have problems swallowing. The drops usually contain iodide and iodate. The drops can also be applied externally.
Iodine powder like the capsules, the powder usually consists of dried and powdered algae. It is more pleasant to take. You can mix the powder with water or add it to your food. However, the powder is not pre-dosed, which makes the dosage a little more difficult for you.

As you can see, your choice depends on your preferred way of taking the powder. Some people cannot or do not want to take tablets or capsules.

In this case, iodine powders and drops are a good alternative. However, all preparations have one thing in common. There are different doses of each preparation. So always find out how high your dose should be before you decide to take tablets, for example.

What is my daily iodine requirement?

The recommended requirement of iodine can depend mainly on age and health conditions. In general, the daily requirement for a normal person is about 150 micrograms. For women, this is about 250 micrograms. (17)

However, these values do not correspond to every age group. The German Nutrition Society recommends the following reference values (18)

  • up to 1 year: 40-80 micrograms
  • 1-10 years: 100-140 micrograms
  • 10-51 years: 140-200
  • 51 years and older: 180 micrograms
  • Pregnant and breastfeeding women: 230-260 micrograms

It is interesting that the values seem to be different from country to country and thus the iodine requirement is interpreted differently. While in Switzerland the reference values are lower than those of Germany, those of American health institutes are higher, especially for infants. (18, 19)

There are several ways to meet your daily iodine requirements. Iodine drops are one of them (Image source: Elsa Olofsson / unsplash)

First and foremost, it is important that you do not take the iodine dosage yourself. The dosage must be adjusted to your iodine content. A wrong dosage can have serious consequences, as we will show you in the following.

What are the side effects of taking iodine?

In an appropriate dosage, iodine is well tolerated. In some cases, you may experience iodine-induced hyperthyroidism with shakiness, diarrhoea and other symptoms. If you suffer from a thyroid disease, you should therefore only take iodine in consultation with your doctor. (2)

However, in some cases there may be other side effects. Children and older people in particular are more likely to be affected by side effects because their bodies are more susceptible. The following side effects can occur (2)

  • Nausea or vomiting
  • Diarrhoea
  • Fever
  • Burning in the throat and mouth
  • Stomach pain

Avoiding iodine is definitely not a solution to avoid these rather rare side effects. Often there are other health reasons behind them, which you should discuss with your doctor. However, iodine is involved in many processes in your body and is therefore very important for you. Not taking it or taking it excessively can have serious consequences.

What happens with iodine deficiency / iodine excess?

Iodine is responsible for the production of thyroid hormones. If this is not guaranteed, it can lead to both hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism. You should know that this can occur both when there is a stomach and when there is an excess of iodine. (20) This is probably the best-known consequence among the population.

However, this is not the only consequence of taking iodine in the wrong way or not taking it at all as a food supplement. Excess iodine can lead to a reduction in testosterone levels and worsen reproduction. (21)

An iodine deficiency, on the other hand, has effects on heart function and the associated heart contractility, vascular resistance, blood pressure and heart rhythm. (22)

There are many symptoms of iodine deficiency and excess. Swelling in the neck is a clear sign.

There are definitely other consequences that an iodine deficiency or excess can cause. However, as some of these relate to the period of pregnancy and beyond, we consider these in a separate section.

Since many people often cannot determine on their own that they have a deficiency or excess of iodine in their body, it is important to pay attention to certain symptoms. For lay people, one or the other symptom is not always immediately seen as an indication of a problem with the iodine balance.

Everyone knows fatigue and weakness, dry and flaky skin, a stronger feeling of cold and problems with learning and remembering things. But these symptoms can also indicate an iodine deficiency or iodine excess in equal measure. (23, 24) Even in the case of hair loss, it is often not a clear indication for us laypeople. (25)

But with some other symptoms, you should see a doctor sooner. One of the most common symptoms is swelling in the neck and throat area. (26) Other serious symptoms are unexpected weight gain (27), changes in heart rate (28) and heavy or irregular periods.(29)

How important is iodine for pregnant women?

As already mentioned, iodine contributes greatly to the growth processes and mental and physical development of the unborn, babies, children and adolescents. (7, 8, 30) In addition, a good iodine balance is very important for women to maintain breast tissue. (31)

During the breastfeeding period, women need a higher iodine intake, because in addition to their own iodine balance, they also have to provide for the baby through breast milk. Especially in this phase, iodine is essential for the newborn baby and for the development of the brain. (19)

Iodine is important for you as well as for the development of your baby. Always make sure your iodine intake is adequate. (Image source: freestocks / unsplash)

The importance of iodine for pregnant women already hints a little at the consequences that can occur if iodine levels are not high enough. In women who suffer from an iodine deficiency during pregnancy, it can happen that the mental development is not well supported and then the child is born with a lower IQ or with a mental disability. (30, 32)

In extreme cases, iodine deficiency during pregnancy can also lead to miscarriage, stillbirth, congenital anomalies, infant and neonatal mortality and growth disorders. (8)

Image source: dolgachov / 123rf

References (32)

1. Pearce EN. Iodine deficiency in children. Endocr Dev. 2014;26:130-8. doi: 10.1159/000363160. Epub 2014 Aug 29. PMID: 25231449.
Source

2. 11 Uses for Iodine: Do Benefits Outweigh the risks?, Medically reviewed by Alan Carter, Pharm.D. — Written by Kristeen Cherney on March 14, 2019
Source

3. Rohner F, Zimmermann M, Jooste P, Pandav C, Caldwell K, Raghavan R, Raiten DJ. Biomarkers of nutrition for development--iodine review. J Nutr. 2014 Aug;144(8):1322S-1342S. doi: 10.3945/jn.113.181974. Epub 2014 Jun 25. PMID: 24966410; PMCID: PMC4093988.
Source

4. Lee KW, Shin D, Song WO. Low Urinary Iodine Concentrations Associated with Dyslipidemia in US Adults. Nutrients. 2016 Mar 17;8(3):171. doi: 10.3390/nu8030171. PMID: 26999198; PMCID: PMC4808899.
Source

5. Salvatore D, Simonides WS, Dentice M, Zavacki AM, Larsen PR. Thyroid hormones and skeletal muscle--new insights and potential implications. Nat Rev Endocrinol. 2014 Apr;10(4):206-14. doi: 10.1038/nrendo.2013.238. Epub 2013 Dec 10. PMID: 24322650; PMCID: PMC4037849.
Source

6. Rodrigo Moreno-Reyes, Dominique Egrise, Marleen Boelaert, Serge Goldman, Sylvain Meuris, Iodine Deficiency Mitigates Growth Retardation and Osteopenia in Selenium-Deficient Rats, The Journal of Nutrition, Volume 136, Issue 3, March 2006, Pages 595–600, https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/136.3.595
Source

7. Prezioso G, Giannini C, Chiarelli F. Effect of Thyroid Hormones on Neurons and Neurodevelopment. Horm Res Paediatr. 2018;90(2):73-81. doi: 10.1159/000492129. Epub 2018 Aug 29. PMID: 30157487.
Source

8. Pearce EN. Iodine deficiency in children. Endocr Dev. 2014;26:130-8. doi: 10.1159/000363160. Epub 2014 Aug 29. PMID: 25231449.
Source

9. Rösner, H., Möller, W., Groebner, S., & Torremante, P. (2016). Antiproliferative/cytotoxic effects of molecular iodine, povidone-iodine and Lugol's solution in different human carcinoma cell lines. Oncology Letters, 12, 2159-2162. https://doi.org/10.3892/ol.2016.4811
Source

10. DeVita, V. T., Lawrence, T. S., & Rosenberg, S. A. (2015). DeVita, Hellman, and Rosenberg's cancer: Principles & practice of oncology: Tenth edition. In DeVita, Hellman, and Rosenberg's Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology: Tenth Edition (pp. 1-2280). Wolters Kluwer Health Adis (ESP).
Source

11. Li JH, He ZH, Bansal V, Hennessey JV. Low iodine diet in differentiated thyroid cancer: a review. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2016 Jan;84(1):3-12. doi: 10.1111/cen.12846. Epub 2015 Jul 29. PMID: 26118628.
Source

12. Smyth PP. The thyroid, iodine and breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res. 2003;5(5):235-8. doi: 10.1186/bcr638. Epub 2003 Jul 29. PMID: 12927031; PMCID: PMC314438.
Source

13. García-Solís P, Alfaro Y, Anguiano B, Delgado G, Guzman RC, Nandi S, Díaz-Muñoz M, Vázquez-Martínez O, Aceves C. Inhibition of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea-induced mammary carcinogenesis by molecular iodine (I2) but not by iodide (I-) treatment Evidence that I2 prevents cancer promotion. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2005 May 31;236(1-2):49-57. doi: 10.1016/j.mce.2005.03.001. Epub 2005 Apr 13. PMID: 15922087.
Source

14. Aceves C, Anguiano B, Delgado G. Is iodine a gatekeeper of the integrity of the mammary gland? J Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia. 2005 Apr;10(2):189-96. doi: 10.1007/s10911-005-5401-5. PMID: 16025225.
Source

15. Kapil U. Health consequences of iodine deficiency. Sultan Qaboos Univ Med J. 2007 Dec;7(3):267-72. PMID: 21748117; PMCID: PMC3074887.
Source

16. Krajcovicová-Kudlácková M, Bucková K, Klimes I, Seboková E. Iodine deficiency in vegetarians and vegans. Ann Nutr Metab. 2003;47(5):183-5. doi: 10.1159/000070483. PMID: 12748410.
Source

17. Leung AM, Braverman LE. Consequences of excess iodine. Nat Rev Endocrinol. 2014 Mar;10(3):136-42. doi: 10.1038/nrendo.2013.251. Epub 2013 Dec 17. PMID: 24342882; PMCID: PMC3976240.
Source

18. Referenzwert des Jodgebrauchs nach der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Ernährung (Stand 15.12.2020)
Source

19. Referenzwert des Jodgebrauchs nach dem International Institute of Health (Stand: 15.12 2020)
Source

20. Markou K, Georgopoulos N, Kyriazopoulou V, Vagenakis AG. Iodine-Induced hypothyroidism. Thyroid. 2001 May;11(5):501-10. doi: 10.1089/105072501300176462. PMID: 11396709.
Source

21. Chakraborty A, Mandal J, Mondal C, Sinha S, Chandra AK. Effect of Excess Iodine on Oxidative Stress Markers, Steroidogenic-Enzyme Activities, Testicular Morphology, and Functions in Adult Male Rats. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2016 Aug;172(2):380-394. doi: 10.1007/s12011-015-0581-3. Epub 2015 Dec 23. PMID: 26701334.
Source

22. Udovcic M, Pena RH, Patham B, Tabatabai L, Kansara A. Hypothyroidism and the Heart. Methodist Debakey Cardiovasc J. 2017 Apr-Jun;13(2):55-59. doi: 10.14797/mdcj-13-2-55. PMID: 28740582; PMCID: PMC5512679.
Source

23. Kostoglou-Athanassiou I, Ntalles K. Hypothyroidism - new aspects of an old disease. Hippokratia. 2010 Apr;14(2):82-7. PMID: 20596261; PMCID: PMC2895281.
Source

24. Hendrick V, Altshuler L, Whybrow P. Psychoneuroendocrinology of mood disorders. The hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis. Psychiatr Clin North Am. 1998 Jun;21(2):277-92. doi: 10.1016/s0193-953x(05)70005-8. PMID: 9670226.
Source

25. Messenger AG. Thyroid hormone and hair growth. Br J Dermatol. 2000 Apr;142(4):633-4. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2133.2000.03521.x. PMID: 10792210.
Source

26. Mariotti S, Beck-Peccoz P. Physiology of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Thyroid Axis. 2016 Aug 14. In: Feingold KR, Anawalt B, Boyce A, Chrousos G, de Herder WW, Dungan K, Grossman A, Hershman JM, Hofland HJ, Kaltsas G, Koch C, Kopp P, Korbonits M, McLachlan R, Morley JE, New M, Purnell J, Singer F, Stratakis CA, Trence DL, Wilson DP, editors. Endotext [Internet]. South Dartmouth (MA): MDText.com, Inc.; 2000–. PMID: 25905193.
Source

27. Kim B. Thyroid hormone as a determinant of energy expenditure and the basal metabolic rate. Thyroid. 2008 Feb;18(2):141-4. doi: 10.1089/thy.2007.0266. PMID: 18279014.
Source

28. Kim MI. Hypothyroidism in Older Adults. 2020 Jul 14. In: Feingold KR, Anawalt B, Boyce A, Chrousos G, de Herder WW, Dungan K, Grossman A, Hershman JM, Hofland HJ, Kaltsas G, Koch C, Kopp P, Korbonits M, McLachlan R, Morley JE, New M, Purnell J, Singer F, Stratakis CA, Trence DL, Wilson DP, editors. Endotext [Internet]. South Dartmouth (MA): MDText.com, Inc.; 2000–. PMID: 25905236.
Source

29. Weeks AD. Menorrhagia and hypothyroidism. Evidence supports association between hypothyroidism and menorrhagia. BMJ. 2000 Mar 4;320(7235):649. doi: 10.1136/bmj.320.7235.649. PMID: 10698899; PMCID: PMC1117669.
Source

30. Monahan M, Boelaert K, Jolly K, Chan S, Barton P, Roberts TE. Costs and benefits of iodine supplementation for pregnant women in a mildly to moderately iodine-deficient population: a modelling analysis. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 2015 Sep;3(9):715-22. doi: 10.1016/S2213-8587(15)00212-0. Epub 2015 Aug 9. PMID: 26268911.
Source

31. Patrick L. Iodine: deficiency and therapeutic considerations. Altern Med Rev. 2008 Jun;13(2):116-27. PMID: 18590348.
Source

32. Patrick L. Iodine: deficiency and therapeutic considerations. Altern Med Rev. 2008 Jun;13(2):116-27. PMID: 18590348.
Source

Why you can trust me?

Wissenschaftlicher Artikel
Pearce EN. Iodine deficiency in children. Endocr Dev. 2014;26:130-8. doi: 10.1159/000363160. Epub 2014 Aug 29. PMID: 25231449.
Go to source
Wissenschaftlicher Artikel
11 Uses for Iodine: Do Benefits Outweigh the risks?, Medically reviewed by Alan Carter, Pharm.D. — Written by Kristeen Cherney on March 14, 2019
Go to source
Wissenschaftlicher Artikel
Rohner F, Zimmermann M, Jooste P, Pandav C, Caldwell K, Raghavan R, Raiten DJ. Biomarkers of nutrition for development--iodine review. J Nutr. 2014 Aug;144(8):1322S-1342S. doi: 10.3945/jn.113.181974. Epub 2014 Jun 25. PMID: 24966410; PMCID: PMC4093988.
Go to source
Wissenschaftliche Untersuchung
Lee KW, Shin D, Song WO. Low Urinary Iodine Concentrations Associated with Dyslipidemia in US Adults. Nutrients. 2016 Mar 17;8(3):171. doi: 10.3390/nu8030171. PMID: 26999198; PMCID: PMC4808899.
Go to source
Wissenschaftlicher Artikel
Salvatore D, Simonides WS, Dentice M, Zavacki AM, Larsen PR. Thyroid hormones and skeletal muscle--new insights and potential implications. Nat Rev Endocrinol. 2014 Apr;10(4):206-14. doi: 10.1038/nrendo.2013.238. Epub 2013 Dec 10. PMID: 24322650; PMCID: PMC4037849.
Go to source
Wissenschaftlicher Artikel
Rodrigo Moreno-Reyes, Dominique Egrise, Marleen Boelaert, Serge Goldman, Sylvain Meuris, Iodine Deficiency Mitigates Growth Retardation and Osteopenia in Selenium-Deficient Rats, The Journal of Nutrition, Volume 136, Issue 3, March 2006, Pages 595–600, https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/136.3.595
Go to source
Wissenschaftlicher Artikel
Prezioso G, Giannini C, Chiarelli F. Effect of Thyroid Hormones on Neurons and Neurodevelopment. Horm Res Paediatr. 2018;90(2):73-81. doi: 10.1159/000492129. Epub 2018 Aug 29. PMID: 30157487.
Go to source
Wissenschaftlicher Artikel
Pearce EN. Iodine deficiency in children. Endocr Dev. 2014;26:130-8. doi: 10.1159/000363160. Epub 2014 Aug 29. PMID: 25231449.
Go to source
Wissenschaftlicher Artikel
Rösner, H., Möller, W., Groebner, S., & Torremante, P. (2016). Antiproliferative/cytotoxic effects of molecular iodine, povidone-iodine and Lugol's solution in different human carcinoma cell lines. Oncology Letters, 12, 2159-2162. https://doi.org/10.3892/ol.2016.4811
Go to source
Wissenschaftlicher Artikel
DeVita, V. T., Lawrence, T. S., & Rosenberg, S. A. (2015). DeVita, Hellman, and Rosenberg's cancer: Principles & practice of oncology: Tenth edition. In DeVita, Hellman, and Rosenberg's Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology: Tenth Edition (pp. 1-2280). Wolters Kluwer Health Adis (ESP).
Go to source
Wissenschaftlicher Artikel
Li JH, He ZH, Bansal V, Hennessey JV. Low iodine diet in differentiated thyroid cancer: a review. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2016 Jan;84(1):3-12. doi: 10.1111/cen.12846. Epub 2015 Jul 29. PMID: 26118628.
Go to source
Wissenschaftlicher Artikel
Smyth PP. The thyroid, iodine and breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res. 2003;5(5):235-8. doi: 10.1186/bcr638. Epub 2003 Jul 29. PMID: 12927031; PMCID: PMC314438.
Go to source
Wissenschaftliche Untersuchung
García-Solís P, Alfaro Y, Anguiano B, Delgado G, Guzman RC, Nandi S, Díaz-Muñoz M, Vázquez-Martínez O, Aceves C. Inhibition of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea-induced mammary carcinogenesis by molecular iodine (I2) but not by iodide (I-) treatment Evidence that I2 prevents cancer promotion. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2005 May 31;236(1-2):49-57. doi: 10.1016/j.mce.2005.03.001. Epub 2005 Apr 13. PMID: 15922087.
Go to source
Wissenschaftlicher Artikel
Aceves C, Anguiano B, Delgado G. Is iodine a gatekeeper of the integrity of the mammary gland? J Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia. 2005 Apr;10(2):189-96. doi: 10.1007/s10911-005-5401-5. PMID: 16025225.
Go to source
Wissenschaftlicher Artikel
Kapil U. Health consequences of iodine deficiency. Sultan Qaboos Univ Med J. 2007 Dec;7(3):267-72. PMID: 21748117; PMCID: PMC3074887.
Go to source
Klinische Untersuchung
Krajcovicová-Kudlácková M, Bucková K, Klimes I, Seboková E. Iodine deficiency in vegetarians and vegans. Ann Nutr Metab. 2003;47(5):183-5. doi: 10.1159/000070483. PMID: 12748410.
Go to source
Wissenschaftlicher Artikel
Leung AM, Braverman LE. Consequences of excess iodine. Nat Rev Endocrinol. 2014 Mar;10(3):136-42. doi: 10.1038/nrendo.2013.251. Epub 2013 Dec 17. PMID: 24342882; PMCID: PMC3976240.
Go to source
Artikel
Referenzwert des Jodgebrauchs nach der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Ernährung (Stand 15.12.2020)
Go to source
Artikel
Referenzwert des Jodgebrauchs nach dem International Institute of Health (Stand: 15.12 2020)
Go to source
Wissenschaftlicher Artikel
Markou K, Georgopoulos N, Kyriazopoulou V, Vagenakis AG. Iodine-Induced hypothyroidism. Thyroid. 2001 May;11(5):501-10. doi: 10.1089/105072501300176462. PMID: 11396709.
Go to source
Wissenschaftliche Untersuchung
Chakraborty A, Mandal J, Mondal C, Sinha S, Chandra AK. Effect of Excess Iodine on Oxidative Stress Markers, Steroidogenic-Enzyme Activities, Testicular Morphology, and Functions in Adult Male Rats. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2016 Aug;172(2):380-394. doi: 10.1007/s12011-015-0581-3. Epub 2015 Dec 23. PMID: 26701334.
Go to source
Wissenschaftlicher Artikel
Udovcic M, Pena RH, Patham B, Tabatabai L, Kansara A. Hypothyroidism and the Heart. Methodist Debakey Cardiovasc J. 2017 Apr-Jun;13(2):55-59. doi: 10.14797/mdcj-13-2-55. PMID: 28740582; PMCID: PMC5512679.
Go to source
Wissenschaftlicher Artikel
Kostoglou-Athanassiou I, Ntalles K. Hypothyroidism - new aspects of an old disease. Hippokratia. 2010 Apr;14(2):82-7. PMID: 20596261; PMCID: PMC2895281.
Go to source
Wissenschaftlicher Artikel
Hendrick V, Altshuler L, Whybrow P. Psychoneuroendocrinology of mood disorders. The hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis. Psychiatr Clin North Am. 1998 Jun;21(2):277-92. doi: 10.1016/s0193-953x(05)70005-8. PMID: 9670226.
Go to source
Wissenschaftlicher Artikel
Messenger AG. Thyroid hormone and hair growth. Br J Dermatol. 2000 Apr;142(4):633-4. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2133.2000.03521.x. PMID: 10792210.
Go to source
Wissenschaftlicher Artikel
Mariotti S, Beck-Peccoz P. Physiology of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Thyroid Axis. 2016 Aug 14. In: Feingold KR, Anawalt B, Boyce A, Chrousos G, de Herder WW, Dungan K, Grossman A, Hershman JM, Hofland HJ, Kaltsas G, Koch C, Kopp P, Korbonits M, McLachlan R, Morley JE, New M, Purnell J, Singer F, Stratakis CA, Trence DL, Wilson DP, editors. Endotext [Internet]. South Dartmouth (MA): MDText.com, Inc.; 2000–. PMID: 25905193.
Go to source
Wissenschaftlicher Artikel
Kim B. Thyroid hormone as a determinant of energy expenditure and the basal metabolic rate. Thyroid. 2008 Feb;18(2):141-4. doi: 10.1089/thy.2007.0266. PMID: 18279014.
Go to source
Wissenschaftlicher Artikel
Kim MI. Hypothyroidism in Older Adults. 2020 Jul 14. In: Feingold KR, Anawalt B, Boyce A, Chrousos G, de Herder WW, Dungan K, Grossman A, Hershman JM, Hofland HJ, Kaltsas G, Koch C, Kopp P, Korbonits M, McLachlan R, Morley JE, New M, Purnell J, Singer F, Stratakis CA, Trence DL, Wilson DP, editors. Endotext [Internet]. South Dartmouth (MA): MDText.com, Inc.; 2000–. PMID: 25905236.
Go to source
Wissenschaftlicher Artikel
Weeks AD. Menorrhagia and hypothyroidism. Evidence supports association between hypothyroidism and menorrhagia. BMJ. 2000 Mar 4;320(7235):649. doi: 10.1136/bmj.320.7235.649. PMID: 10698899; PMCID: PMC1117669.
Go to source
Wissenschaftlicher Artikel
Monahan M, Boelaert K, Jolly K, Chan S, Barton P, Roberts TE. Costs and benefits of iodine supplementation for pregnant women in a mildly to moderately iodine-deficient population: a modelling analysis. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 2015 Sep;3(9):715-22. doi: 10.1016/S2213-8587(15)00212-0. Epub 2015 Aug 9. PMID: 26268911.
Go to source
Wissenschaftlicher Artikel
Patrick L. Iodine: deficiency and therapeutic considerations. Altern Med Rev. 2008 Jun;13(2):116-27. PMID: 18590348.
Go to source
Wissenschaftlicher Artikel
Patrick L. Iodine: deficiency and therapeutic considerations. Altern Med Rev. 2008 Jun;13(2):116-27. PMID: 18590348.
Go to source
Reviews