Last updated: August 30, 2021

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Most of us have heard of the popular antioxidant supplements. These remedies have established themselves as another tool in our constant struggle against the relentless passage of time. In our new article, we are pleased to introduce you to a compound that many believe to be the best antioxidant in the world.

OPCs are natural molecules of the flavonoid group, capable of acting on the three worst enemies of health. Oxidative stress, inflammation, and metabolic syndrome may just have found their match with OPC supplements. If you think it sounds too good to be true, read our guide to understand why they are so useful.




Summary

  • OPCs are antioxidant compounds mostly present in the grape seed extract and the bark of the maritime or cluster pine.
  • These supplements capture and neutralize free radicals, reducing oxidative stress and promoting the maintenance of cellular integrity in the process.
  • You will have to consider various factors before purchasing these products, such as your possible dietary restrictions or the source of the OPCs.

The best OPC: Our Picks

We're sure that you want to find the OPC supplements that best fit your needs, which is why we have analyzed the market to choose the most popular products available out there. In our selection below, you can learn more about these supplements, who they are for, and how to take them. Get ready to reap all the benefits of OPCs!

Shopping Guide: Everything You Should Know About OPCs

OPCs are potent antioxidant molecules that capture and neutralize free radicals responsible for oxidative and inflammatory processes in the body. These natural compounds have been used in supplements for over a decade already, with many describing them as "the best antioxidants on the market".

OPC supplements have incredible antioxidant potential.
(Source: Nikkiphoto: 47308369/ 123rf.com)

What are OPCs exactly?

Oligomeric proanthocyanidin complexes (OPCs) are a group of antioxidant molecules of plant origin, also known as flavonoids. The French scientist Jacques Masquelier discovered them in 1948, isolating these compounds from grape seed extract and the bark of the maritime pine (Pinus pinaster) (1).

OPCs may be able to tackle the health challenges of modern society. Stress, aging, and poor nutrition disrupt the internal balance of our organism. This results in increased oxidative stress and inflammation, as well as the appearance of metabolic syndrome. You can learn more about the consequences of these harmful processes in the table below (2, 3):

Problem Origin Mechanism Consequences
Oxidative stress (increase of free radicals) Contamination.

Exposure to heavy metals (cadmium and lead).

Obesity.

Consumption of toxins (alcohol and tobacco).

Increase in oxidizing compounds.

Decrease in antioxidant molecules.

Cell damage.

Atherosclerosis.

Diabetes.

Hypertension.

Cancer.

Male infertility.

Fatigue.

Inflammation (excessive activation of the immune system) Aging.

Stress.

Obesity.

Diabetes.

Allergies.

Cardiovascular diseases.

Fat-rich diet.

Sleep deprivation.

Consumption of toxins (alcohol and tobacco).

Release of inflammatory molecules Joint pain.

Muscle pain.

Fatigue.

Insomnia.

Depression.

Anxiety.

Constipation.

Flatulence.

Weight gain.

Susceptibility to infections.

Metabolic syndrome (increased likelihood of cardiovascular events) Diet high in saturated fats and sugars.

Sedentarism.

Increased visceral fat.

Insulin resistance.

Metabolic imbalance.

Weight gain.

Hypertension.

Diabetes.

Erectile dysfunction.

Hypercholesterolemia.

Cardiovascular events.

Cancer.

According to the latest clinical trials on animals, the consumption of OPCs would reduce the levels of free radicals with higher potency than vitamins C and E, other known antioxidants. It may also lower levels of body inflammation and inhibit appetite, contributing to the weight loss required to control the metabolic syndrome (4).

Why should I use OPC supplements?

Small amounts of OPCs are present in certain plant foods such as grapes, raspberries, blueberries, and other berries. Maritime pine bark and peanuts also contain these molecules. In addition, wine is a good source of these antioxidants – especially if it has been fermented in pine barrels.

You can raise your OPC levels by integrating these foods into your diet. The problem is that you would need a high daily consumption to reach the dose of proanthocyanidins that has proven to have a potentially beneficial effect on health. Unfortunately, excessive intake of these products can lead to several undesirable and harmful effects (5):

  • Empty calories: Excessive wine consumption may increase your alcohol intake, resulting in an excess of empty calories (energy devoid of nutrients and vitamins). This would lead to the paradoxical combination of malnutrition and obesity.
  • Alcohol oxidation: Once metabolized by your liver, alcohol forms an oxidizing compound called acetaldehyde. This molecule binds to tissues, damaging them and causing cardiovascular (myocardiopathy), hepatic (cirrhosis), and metabolic (pancreatitis) pathologies, among others. This process counters the antioxidant effects of OPCs.
  • Diet transgressions: While moderate consumption of fresh fruits and nuts is recommended, excessive intake of sugar and fat from grapes, blackberries, raspberries, and peanuts will result in excess calories and weight gain. If you have diabetes, sugar intake will also worsen your glycemic control.
  • High cost: Wine, nuts, and berries are generally expensive products. Their consumption can definitely have an impact on your budget in the long run.

The dose of OPCs required to mitigate oxidative stress ranges from 50 to 600 mg/day. A glass of wine will provide the highest natural intake, reaching around 200 mg (6). However, keep in mind that the effect of acetaldehyde will reduce its antioxidant power. This is why OPC supplements are much more effective and less harmful.

One study demonstrated that the appearance of women's skin improved after using OPC supplements.
(Source: Radmanovac: 89357415/ 123rf.com)

Can OPC supplements stop aging?

The leading cause of aging is oxidative stress caused by the harmful effect of free radicals. The chemical reactions that occur during your body's metabolic processes are responsible for producing these oxidizing agents. The consumption of alcohol, as well as the influence of stress, can also accelerate these processes.

While we aren't able to completely stop the passage of time yet, you can age healthily by reducing the levels of free radicals in your organism. This will lower your chances of suffering from certain conditions, such as cardiovascular events, joint degeneration, and infertility. It may also prevent the premature appearance of wrinkles.

While OPC supplements have been taken for decades to deal with the unpleasant effects of aging, clinical trials on proanthocyanidins are still in their early stages. That being said, the results of these studies have been incredibly promising so far. We have listed the most relevant ones in the following table:

Country, year Type of study Aim Dose Results
India, 2019 Clinical trial on animals (7) Effects of OPCs on oxidative stress 100 mg/kg/day (grape seed extract) Reduction of oxidative stress.

Prevention of cell death.

Fertility conservation.

France, 2016 Clinical trial (35 women) (8) Identifying potential changes in skin appearance 150 mg/day (grape seed extract + vitamin C + zinc) Improvement of skin tone.

Increase in facial luminosity.

Reduction of blemishes.

Improvement of skin firmness.

Spain, 2014 Clinical trial on animals (9) Effects on oxidative stress caused by obesity 35 mg/kg/day (grape seed extract) Lowered oxidative stress in the liver
Spain/Colombia, 2012 Clinical trial on animals (10) Effects of OPCs on hypertension 250 mg/kg/day.

350 mg/kg/day.

500 mg/kg/day (grape seed extract).

Control of hypertension.

No lowering of normal blood pressure.

The studies mentioned above have confirmed the potential of OPC supplements in reducing the oxidation of various tissues caused by elements such as toxic abuse, obesity, or hypertension. Carried out on women, the most promising trial showed an improvement in skin tone, firmness, and texture.

Can OPC supplements reduce inflammation?

Inflammation is another major problem affecting the quality of life of an increasing number of people around the world. This condition appears as a result of different agents (primarily obesity, diabetes, and certain diseases) and generates joint pain, intestinal problems, and respiratory disorders, among other pathologies.

Bioflavonoids such as OPCs may regulate the immune system, preventing the excessive activation of cells responsible for the production of inflammatory molecules. In the table below, you can learn more about the top studies regarding the relationship between OPC supplements and inflammation:

Country, year Type of study Aim Dose Results
Spain, 2019 Clinical trial on animals (11) Influence on inflammation caused by processed food 100 mg/kg/day.

500 mg/kg/day (grape seed extract).

Improvement of metabolic parameters.

Prevention of gastrointestinal conditions.

Spain, 2009 Clinical trial on animals (12) Influence on inflammation caused by a fat-rich diet 345 mg/kg/day (grape seed extract) Reduction of inflammation.

Increased fat destruction.

UK, 2009 Clinical trial (16 men and 16 women) (13) Effects on oxidative stress in diabetic and obese individuals 600 mg/day (grape seed extract) Reduction of oxidative stress

The use of OPC supplements derived from grape seed extract may control inflammation caused by poor diet (called "cafeteria diet" in one of the studies) and metabolic disorders such as diabetes. Keep in mind that further research is required to confirm these promising results.

What other benefits do OPC supplements offer?

In addition to the aspects we've just discussed, OPC supplements have shown some usefulness in improving the symptoms of several conditions. We have detailed them in the list below:

  • Erectile dysfunction: Consumption of a diet rich in flavonoids (including proanthocyanidins) may prevent the onset of erectile dysfunction among older men (18). Besides, OPC supplements from maritime pine extract combined with arginine could be an alternative for the treatment of impotence (19).
  • Varicose veins: These supplements are often recommended for the prevention and relief of varicose veins, although there is a lack of clinical studies, and more thorough clinical trials need to confirm these promising results (20).
  • Alzheimer's disease: The use of OPC supplements has been suggested to stop the progression of Alzheimer's disease. The antioxidant effect of these molecules may improve the symptoms of this form of dementia. Further studies are required to prove or disprove this hypothesis (21).
  • Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Certain experts believe that adding OPC (from maritime pine extract) to the diet of people with ADHD could improve the management of this condition (22).
  • Hair loss: The administration of an OPC supplement from blackcurrant extract proved to contribute to the hair growth of lab rats. This is why experts think that it could be a possible ally to fight hair loss induced by hormonal factors (23).

Some scientists have also presented ambitious hypotheses regarding the OPCs' ability to treat cancer. Indeed, these dietary supplements have shown anti-tumor activity in cultures of isolated cells, where it destroyed malignant cells (24, 25). Once again, further studies are needed to verify whether or not these effects also affect human patients.

OPCs are used to prevent and treat varicose veins.
(Source: Atamanenko: 67136172/ 123rf.com)

Are OPC supplements safe?

These products are generally considered safe. That being said, individuals taking treatments for certain chronic conditions should consult their health professional before starting supplementation with OPCs. It is suspected that the following drugs may have some type of undesirable interaction with these supplements (26):

  • Anticoagulant medication
  • Antiplatelets
  • Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatories
  • Antihypertensive medication
  • Glucose-lowering drugs, including insulin
  • Lipid-lowering medication and cholesterol treatments

The safety of OPC supplements in pregnant or breastfeeding women has not been proven yet, which is why its use is discouraged. Children under the age of 18, fragile individuals, or people who are about to undergo surgery should not consume this product without medical supervision.

Finally, it is essential that you keep in mind that not all oxidative processes in the body are harmful. Free radicals are weapons used by your immune system to destroy microorganisms, toxins, and malignant cells. Defensive cells are capable of launching pro-oxidant compounds against threats to your health, ensuring the well-being of the body.

The excessive activation of this system is what generates tissue damage, inflammation, and premature aging. Antioxidant supplements such as OPCs may prevent these undesirable effects, although excessive consumption could sabotage the actions of your white blood cells; this would leave you unprotected against disease (27). Always follow instructions of use when taking antioxidants.

Some OPC supplements are extracted from maritime pine.
(Source: Lukeluke: 84130525/ 123rf.com)

Buyer's Guide

Choosing the right OPC supplement can be quite challenging. You have to evaluate a series of key criteria that will help you identify the most suitable product. In the following section, we have selected the most important factors and delved into them so you can have all the information you need to make the best possible purchase.

Dietary Restrictions

If you are allergic to grapes, blueberries, or any other berry, you will naturally rule out any OPC supplement based on grape extract. You can turn to products based exclusively on maritime pine extract. In any case, stop use immediately and seek medical help if you experience breathing difficulties, rashes, or dizziness during supplementation.

OPCs come from plants, so it shouldn't be difficult for vegetarian individuals to find a suitable supplement. Simply check the composition of the product to make sure that the capsules aren't made from animal gelatin. In addition, manufacturers offer supplements adequate for gluten-intolerant people, as well as anyone allergic to lactose, soya, or nuts.

These antioxidants could improve the appearance of skin in women.
(Source: Przybysz: 74173045/ 123rf.com)

Origin of OPCs

Oligomeric proanthocyanidin complexes can be found in other foods, such as cocoa, certain nuts, and various types of citrus fruits. However, the benefits of supplements based on grape seed and maritime pine bark extracts have been studied in greater depth. For safer supplementation, we encourage you to opt for products that include these extracts.

Organic Agriculture

If you can, opt for supplements that come from organic farming. Pesticide abuse and deforestation are constant threats to our ecosystem, and purchasing a sustainable OPC product will help improve your health and care for the environment. Note that these items are generally more expensive than others with lower quality standards.

Did you know that, in Ancient Greece, Hippocrates recommended the use of grape syrup (rich in OPCs) as a medicinal remedy?

Summary

Wine and grapes have been known to contribute to our health since ancient times. Modern technology has allowed us to extract the benefits of these foods, concentrating the power of the grape seed and pine bark in a wonderful supplement.

If you're looking for a nutritional product with antioxidant actions, OPC supplements are exactly what you need. They could improve your skin while protecting your cardiovascular system from free radical damage. What more could you ask for?

We hope you enjoyed our guide on OPC supplements. Feel free to leave us a comment below and share it on your social media!

(Featured Image Source: Tatevosian: 109625063/ 123rf.com)

References (27)

1. Seifirad S, Ghaffari A, Amoli MM. The antioxidants dilemma: Are they potentially immunosuppressants and carcinogens? Front Physiol. 2014;5 JUL.
Source

2. Grape Seed Uses, Benefits & Dosage - Drugs.com Herbal Database [Internet]. [cited 2019 Oct 30].
Source

3. Toden S, Ravindranathan P, Gu J, Cardenas J, Yuchang M, Goel A. Oligomeric proanthocyanidins (OPCs) target cancer stem-like cells and suppress tumor organoid formation in colorectal cancer. Sci Rep. 2018 Dec 1;8(1).
Source

4. Ravindranathan P, Pasham D, Balaji U, Cardenas J, Gu J, Toden S, et al. Mechanistic insights into anticancer properties of oligomeric proanthocyanidins from grape seeds in colorectal cancer. Carcinogenesis [Internet]. 2018 [cited 2019 Oct 30];39(6):767–77.
Source

5. Nanashima N, Horie K. Blackcurrant Extract with Phytoestrogen Activity Alleviates Hair Loss in Ovariectomized Rats. Molecules [Internet]. 2019 Apr 1 [cited 2019 Oct 30];24(7):1272.
Source

6. Verlaet A, Maasakkers C, Hermans N, Savelkoul H. Rationale for Dietary Antioxidant Treatment of ADHD. Nutrients [Internet]. 2018 Mar 24 [cited 2019 Oct 30];10(4):405.
Source

7. Lian Q, Nie Y, Zhang X, Tan B, Cao H, Chen W, et al. Effects of grape seed proanthocyanidin on Alzheimer’s disease in vitro and in vivo. Exp Ther Med [Internet]. 2016 Sep 1 [cited 2019 Oct 30];12(3):1681–92.
Source

8. MacKay DJ. Hemorrhoids and varicose veins: A review of treatment options. Vol. 6, Alternative Medicine Review. 2001. p. 126–40.
Source

9. Stanislavov R, Nikolova V. Treatment of erectile dysfunction with pycnogenol and L-arginine. J Sex Marital Ther [Internet]. 2003 [cited 2019 Oct 30];29(3):207–13.
Source

10. Cassidy A, Franz M, Rimm EB. Dietary flavonoid intake and incidence of erectile dysfunction. Am J Clin Nutr [Internet]. 2016 Feb [cited 2019 Oct 30];103(2):534–41.
Source

11. Feringa HHH, Laskey DA, Dickson JE, Coleman CI. The Effect of Grape Seed Extract on Cardiovascular Risk Markers: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. J Am Diet Assoc [Internet]. 2011 Aug [cited 2019 Oct 29];111(8):1173–81.
Source

12. Thiruchenduran M, Vijayan NA, Sawaminathan JK, Devaraj SN. Protective effect of grape seed proanthocyanidins against cholesterol cholic acid diet-induced hypercholesterolemia in rats. Cardiovasc Pathol [Internet]. 2011 Nov [cited 2019 Oct 29];20(6):361–8.
Source

13. M. Defining conditions for optimal inhibition of food intake in rats by a grape-seed derived proanthocyanidin extract. Nutrients [Internet]. 2016 Oct 20 [cited 2019 Oct 29];8(10).
Source

14. Vargas F V, Guisado Requena IM, Canadas De la Fuente GA, Castillo RF, Sanchez E F, Jara C C, et al. Effects of Combinational Procyanidins in Grape Seed Extract and Exercise on the Levels of Glucose and Blood Lipid Profile. J Diabetes Metab [Internet]. 2017;08(08):6–10.
Source

15. Kar P, Laight D, Rooprai HK, Shaw KM, Cummings M. Effects of grape seed extract in Type 2 diabetic subjects at high cardiovascular risk: a double blind randomized placebo controlled trial examining metabolic markers, vascular tone, inflammation, oxidative stress and insulin sensitivity. Diabet Med [Internet]. 2009 May [cited 2019 Oct 29];26(5):526–31.
Source

16. Terra X, Montagut G, Bustos M, Llopiz N, Ardèvol A, Bladé C, et al. Grape-seed procyanidins prevent low-grade inflammation by modulating cytokine expression in rats fed a high-fat diet. J Nutr Biochem [Internet]. 2009 Mar [cited 2019 Oct 29];20(3):210–8.
Source

17. González-Quilen C, Gil-Cardoso K, Ginés I, Beltrán-Debón R, Pinent M, Ardévol A, et al. Grape-Seed Proanthocyanidins are Able to Reverse Intestinal Dysfunction and Metabolic Endotoxemia Induced by a Cafeteria Diet in Wistar Rats. Nutrients [Internet]. 2019 Apr 29 [cited 2019 Oct 29];11(5).
Source

18. Quiñones M, Guerrero L, Suarez M, Pons Z, Aleixandre A, Arola L, et al. Low-molecular procyanidin rich grape seed extract exerts antihypertensive effect in males spontaneously hypertensive rats. Food Res Int [Internet]. 2013;51(2):587–95.
Source

19. Fernández-Iglesias A, Pajuelo D, Quesada H, Díaz S, Bladé C, Arola L, et al. Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract improves the hepatic glutathione metabolism in obese Zucker rats. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2014;58(4):727–37.
Source

20. Dumoulin M, Gaudout D, Lemaire B. Clinical effects of an oral supplement rich in antioxidants on skin radiance in women. Clin Cosmet Investig Dermatol [Internet]. 2016 Oct 18 [cited 2019 Oct 29];Volume 9:315–24.
Source

21. Bashir N, Shagirtha K, Manoharan V, Miltonprabu S. The molecular and biochemical insight view of grape seed proanthocyanidins in ameliorating cadmium-induced testes-toxicity in rat model: implication of PI3K/Akt/Nrf-2 signaling. Biosci Rep [Internet]. 2019 Jan 31 [cited 2019 Oct 29];39(1).
Source

22. Fujimaki T, Mori S, Horikawa M, Fukui Y. Isolation of proanthocyanidins from red wine, and their inhibitory effects on melanin synthesis in vitro. Food Chem [Internet]. 2018;248:61–9.
Source

23. Hümmer W, Schreier P. Analysis of proanthocyanidins. Mol Nutr Food Res [Internet]. 2008 Dec;52(12):1381–98.
Source

24. Rodríguez-Pérez, García-Villanova, Guerra-Hernández, Verardo. Grape Seeds Proanthocyanidins: An Overview of In Vivo Bioactivity in Animal Models. Nutrients [Internet]. 2019 Oct 12;11(10):2435.
Source

25. Rochlani Y, Pothineni NV, Kovelamudi S, Mehta JL. Metabolic syndrome: Pathophysiology, management, and modulation by natural compounds. Vol. 11, Therapeutic Advances in Cardiovascular Disease. SAGE Publications Ltd; 2017. p. 215–25.
Source

26. Fleit HB. Chronic Inflammation. In: Pathobiology of Human Disease [Internet]. Elsevier; 2014 [cited 2019 Oct 28]. p. 300–14.
Source

27. Mukherjee M, Bandyopadhyay P, Kundu D. Exploring the role of cranberry polyphenols in periodontits: A brief review. J Indian Soc Periodontol [Internet]. 2014 [cited 2019 Oct 28];18(2):136.
Source

Artículo de revisión
Seifirad S, Ghaffari A, Amoli MM. The antioxidants dilemma: Are they potentially immunosuppressants and carcinogens? Front Physiol. 2014;5 JUL.
Go to source
Recurso web oficial
Grape Seed Uses, Benefits & Dosage - Drugs.com Herbal Database [Internet]. [cited 2019 Oct 30].
Go to source
Estudio científico
Toden S, Ravindranathan P, Gu J, Cardenas J, Yuchang M, Goel A. Oligomeric proanthocyanidins (OPCs) target cancer stem-like cells and suppress tumor organoid formation in colorectal cancer. Sci Rep. 2018 Dec 1;8(1).
Go to source
Artículo de revisión
Ravindranathan P, Pasham D, Balaji U, Cardenas J, Gu J, Toden S, et al. Mechanistic insights into anticancer properties of oligomeric proanthocyanidins from grape seeds in colorectal cancer. Carcinogenesis [Internet]. 2018 [cited 2019 Oct 30];39(6):767–77.
Go to source
Ensayo clínico (animales)
Nanashima N, Horie K. Blackcurrant Extract with Phytoestrogen Activity Alleviates Hair Loss in Ovariectomized Rats. Molecules [Internet]. 2019 Apr 1 [cited 2019 Oct 30];24(7):1272.
Go to source
Artículo de revisión
Verlaet A, Maasakkers C, Hermans N, Savelkoul H. Rationale for Dietary Antioxidant Treatment of ADHD. Nutrients [Internet]. 2018 Mar 24 [cited 2019 Oct 30];10(4):405.
Go to source
Ensayo clínico in vitro
Lian Q, Nie Y, Zhang X, Tan B, Cao H, Chen W, et al. Effects of grape seed proanthocyanidin on Alzheimer’s disease in vitro and in vivo. Exp Ther Med [Internet]. 2016 Sep 1 [cited 2019 Oct 30];12(3):1681–92.
Go to source
Artículo de revisión
MacKay DJ. Hemorrhoids and varicose veins: A review of treatment options. Vol. 6, Alternative Medicine Review. 2001. p. 126–40.
Go to source
Ensayo clínico (humanos)
Stanislavov R, Nikolova V. Treatment of erectile dysfunction with pycnogenol and L-arginine. J Sex Marital Ther [Internet]. 2003 [cited 2019 Oct 30];29(3):207–13.
Go to source
Estudio de cohortes
Cassidy A, Franz M, Rimm EB. Dietary flavonoid intake and incidence of erectile dysfunction. Am J Clin Nutr [Internet]. 2016 Feb [cited 2019 Oct 30];103(2):534–41.
Go to source
Metanaálisis
Feringa HHH, Laskey DA, Dickson JE, Coleman CI. The Effect of Grape Seed Extract on Cardiovascular Risk Markers: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. J Am Diet Assoc [Internet]. 2011 Aug [cited 2019 Oct 29];111(8):1173–81.
Go to source
Ensayo clínico (animales)
Thiruchenduran M, Vijayan NA, Sawaminathan JK, Devaraj SN. Protective effect of grape seed proanthocyanidins against cholesterol cholic acid diet-induced hypercholesterolemia in rats. Cardiovasc Pathol [Internet]. 2011 Nov [cited 2019 Oct 29];20(6):361–8.
Go to source
Ensayo clínico (animales)
M. Defining conditions for optimal inhibition of food intake in rats by a grape-seed derived proanthocyanidin extract. Nutrients [Internet]. 2016 Oct 20 [cited 2019 Oct 29];8(10).
Go to source
Ensayo clínico (animales)
Vargas F V, Guisado Requena IM, Canadas De la Fuente GA, Castillo RF, Sanchez E F, Jara C C, et al. Effects of Combinational Procyanidins in Grape Seed Extract and Exercise on the Levels of Glucose and Blood Lipid Profile. J Diabetes Metab [Internet]. 2017;08(08):6–10.
Go to source
Ensayo clínico (animales)
Kar P, Laight D, Rooprai HK, Shaw KM, Cummings M. Effects of grape seed extract in Type 2 diabetic subjects at high cardiovascular risk: a double blind randomized placebo controlled trial examining metabolic markers, vascular tone, inflammation, oxidative stress and insulin sensitivity. Diabet Med [Internet]. 2009 May [cited 2019 Oct 29];26(5):526–31.
Go to source
Terra X, Montagut G, Bustos M, Llopiz N, Ardèvol A, Bladé C, et al. Grape-seed procyanidins prevent low-grade inflammation by modulating cytokine expression in rats fed a high-fat diet. J Nutr Biochem [Internet]. 2009 Mar [cited 2019 Oct 29];20(3):210–8.
Go to source
Ensayo clínico (animales)
González-Quilen C, Gil-Cardoso K, Ginés I, Beltrán-Debón R, Pinent M, Ardévol A, et al. Grape-Seed Proanthocyanidins are Able to Reverse Intestinal Dysfunction and Metabolic Endotoxemia Induced by a Cafeteria Diet in Wistar Rats. Nutrients [Internet]. 2019 Apr 29 [cited 2019 Oct 29];11(5).
Go to source
Ensayo clínico (ratas)
Quiñones M, Guerrero L, Suarez M, Pons Z, Aleixandre A, Arola L, et al. Low-molecular procyanidin rich grape seed extract exerts antihypertensive effect in males spontaneously hypertensive rats. Food Res Int [Internet]. 2013;51(2):587–95.
Go to source
Ensayo clínico (ratas)
Fernández-Iglesias A, Pajuelo D, Quesada H, Díaz S, Bladé C, Arola L, et al. Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract improves the hepatic glutathione metabolism in obese Zucker rats. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2014;58(4):727–37.
Go to source
Ensayo clínico (humanos)
Dumoulin M, Gaudout D, Lemaire B. Clinical effects of an oral supplement rich in antioxidants on skin radiance in women. Clin Cosmet Investig Dermatol [Internet]. 2016 Oct 18 [cited 2019 Oct 29];Volume 9:315–24.
Go to source
Ensayo clínico (animales)
Bashir N, Shagirtha K, Manoharan V, Miltonprabu S. The molecular and biochemical insight view of grape seed proanthocyanidins in ameliorating cadmium-induced testes-toxicity in rat model: implication of PI3K/Akt/Nrf-2 signaling. Biosci Rep [Internet]. 2019 Jan 31 [cited 2019 Oct 29];39(1).
Go to source
Artículo de revisión
Fujimaki T, Mori S, Horikawa M, Fukui Y. Isolation of proanthocyanidins from red wine, and their inhibitory effects on melanin synthesis in vitro. Food Chem [Internet]. 2018;248:61–9.
Go to source
Artículo de revisión
Hümmer W, Schreier P. Analysis of proanthocyanidins. Mol Nutr Food Res [Internet]. 2008 Dec;52(12):1381–98.
Go to source
Artículo de revisión
Rodríguez-Pérez, García-Villanova, Guerra-Hernández, Verardo. Grape Seeds Proanthocyanidins: An Overview of In Vivo Bioactivity in Animal Models. Nutrients [Internet]. 2019 Oct 12;11(10):2435.
Go to source
Artículo de revisión
Rochlani Y, Pothineni NV, Kovelamudi S, Mehta JL. Metabolic syndrome: Pathophysiology, management, and modulation by natural compounds. Vol. 11, Therapeutic Advances in Cardiovascular Disease. SAGE Publications Ltd; 2017. p. 215–25.
Go to source
Artículo de revisión
Fleit HB. Chronic Inflammation. In: Pathobiology of Human Disease [Internet]. Elsevier; 2014 [cited 2019 Oct 28]. p. 300–14.
Go to source
Estudio científico
Mukherjee M, Bandyopadhyay P, Kundu D. Exploring the role of cranberry polyphenols in periodontits: A brief review. J Indian Soc Periodontol [Internet]. 2014 [cited 2019 Oct 28];18(2):136.
Go to source
Reviews