Last updated: August 11, 2021

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You have heard of rutin, but you are not quite sure what it actually is? Or are you already familiar with rutin, but would like to know more about its uses and applications? Then you've come to the right place.

With our detailed Rutin Test 2020 we want to answer your questions about Rutin. We have compiled all the important information to help you with your purchase decision. Here you can find out what exactly rutin is, how it is best used and in which natural foods rutin is found.




The most important facts

  • Rutin belongs to the flavonoid group and is a secondary plant compound that has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.
  • Rutin has many beneficial properties and can be used in many areas. These areas include cancer, vein problems and Alzheimer's disease.
  • Most commonly, rutin is available for purchase in capsule form. Less commonly, rutin is also available for purchase in tablet form or as a tincture.

The Best Rutin: Our Picks

There is a large selection of rutin products. To help you with your purchase decision, we have compiled our favourites below.

The best high-dose rutin capsules

Buying and evaluation criteria for rutin

When buying rutin, there are various aspects to consider. These are the following aspects:

These criteria should help you decide on the right rutin product.

Ingredients

When choosing a rutin product, you should make sure that it contains no additives such as flavourings or colourings. These are often added, but have no scientifically proven effectiveness. Therefore, you should make sure that only natural ingredients are used in the production of the rutin product of your choice.

Rutin is often offered in combination with other ingredients.

Besides pure rutin products, rutin is also offered in combination with other ingredients. In particular, a combination of rutin and vitamin C or rutin and sweet clover is often offered, which is supposed to increase the health-promoting effect of rutin.

Especially when combining rutin with other ingredients, it is important to make sure that only the necessary ingredients are used.

Quality

When buying rutin, it pays to pay attention to the quality of the product. High quality rutin is free from ingredients such as artificial additives and preservatives, and instead contains only natural ingredients. Many of these rutin products benefit from being gluten and lactose free, as well as vegan.

Various labels and certificates can be an indication that the rutin has been tested in the laboratory for microbiological contamination.

The product should be sufficiently tested for salmonella, moulds and pesticides to ensure good quality. You should also make sure that you buy a rutin product that has been produced without genetic engineering.

Dosage

Before buying, you should find out the recommended dosage for you to find the right product. Exact instructions on how much you should take can be found on the package or on the package insert of your product. You should follow these instructions to avoid overdosing on rutin.

If you are looking for high-dose rutin products, rutin capsules are the right choice for you. They come in different dosage strengths. Most packs have capsules with 450 milligrams or 500 milligrams of high-dose rutin.

Type of manufacture

There are two different ways rutin is manufactured. Firstly, there is the naturally occurring rutin. This is made from the extract of rutin-rich plants. An extract of the Japanese cord tree is often used for this purpose, as its leaves and flowers contain a lot of rutin.

There are also hydroxyethyl rutosides that are produced from natural rutin with the help of chemical processes. These include troxerutin and oxerutin. However, the effect of these rutosides hardly differs.

Guide: Frequently asked questions about rutin answered in detail

We have summarised the most important information about the effectiveness of rutin for you in the following sections.

What is rutin and how does it work?

Rutin belongs to the group of flavonoids. These are secondary plant substances that strengthen the cells of plants and protect the plants from UV rays.

Rutin has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.

Rutin can be used for a variety of complaints and applications. The secondary plant substances to which rutin belongs are said to have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. (1) . This makes it very versatile.

Below we have selected a few possible effects of rutin to give you an overview of how rutin works.

Effect on cancer

Rutin may have an anti-cancer effect by inhibiting the cell division of some types of cancer cells and thus slowing down their growth (2).

Taking rutin may have anti-leukaemic potential. Treatment with rutin may lead to a reduction in tumour weight and volume by significantly limiting tumour growth (3).

Effect in Alzheimer's disease

Rutin may have a positive effect on the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Studies have shown that rutin has an anti-inflammatory effect and can therefore also prevent inflammation-induced changes in the hippocampus (4). This may prevent cognitive deficits and thus be beneficial in combating Alzheimer's (5).

Cardiovascular effects

Rutin may have a blood pressure lowering effect. Taking rutin may therefore reduce oxidative stress, a dysbalance between oxidative and antioxidative processes in the body (6).

In addition, rutin has a blood-thinning effect by reducing blood clotting. Thus, taking rutin can reduce the risk of thrombosis (7).

Effect on varicose veins

Varicose veins can cause blood to back up in the veins of the legs. This causes the legs to swell due to water retention after standing for a long time. Rutin can counteract this by making blood vessels more resistant and promoting good circulation (8)

Effect on the skin

Plants produce rutin to protect themselves from the sun's UV rays. This protection is also beneficial for humans, as too much UV radiation on the skin causes it to age quickly.

To test the potential effect of rutin on the skin, various studies have been conducted. These show that rutin could act as a possible sunscreen and also protects cells and connective tissue (9, 10). This means that rutin can prevent skin ageing and make it look younger (11).

When and for whom is it useful to take rutin?

Taking rutin is useful for a variety of ailments and diseases. Due to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, rutin can be used in many different ways.

When taking rutin, you should make sure that you take it with enough water and preferably in combination with a meal.

We have listed the classic complaints or areas of application that can be treated with rutin below:

  • Protection of the blood vessels (6, 7, 8)
  • Lowering of the cholesterol level (12)
  • Protection from UV rays (9, 10)
  • Swollen legs (8)
  • Detoxification of mercury (13)
  • Treatment of cancer (2, 3)
  • Strengthening the immune system (14)

Rutin is not suitable for you if you already have liver or kidney damage or suffer from heart failure. In this case, you should talk to your doctor about whether or not you can take rutin.

What types of rutin are there?

There are different forms of rutin. To give you an overview, we have summarised the different types for you in the following table. However, you should note that rutin is almost exclusively available in capsule form and only rarely as tablets or tincture.

Type Description
Capsules Capsules have no taste of their own and are often high in dosage.
Tablets Tablets made from compressed rutin powder should be swallowed with sufficient liquid.
Tincture The liquid variant is particularly easy to take and swallow.

We will explain the advantages and disadvantages of the different types in more detail in the next few paragraphs.

Rutin capsules

Rutin in capsule form is offered by many different manufacturers, so there is a large selection to choose from. If you have any intolerances or if vegan products are important to you, there is a large selection of vegan capsules, whose shells are made without animal ingredients, and capsules that are lactose- and gluten-free.

Capsules have no taste and are therefore easier to swallow than a tablet that may be bitter. (Image source: The-Lore.com / unsplash)

In addition, the capsules are usually highly dosed and adjusted to the recommended daily amount. So you can take one capsule every day without having to weigh or prepare anything beforehand.

The practical package sizes ensure that you have an average supply of capsules for about four months and don't have to buy new ones so often.

Capsules are often available in combination with other active ingredients. When buying, you should therefore pay attention to the ingredients of the capsules to avoid buying capsules with undesirable ingredients.

Rutin tablets

Rutin tablets usually have a lower dosage than capsules and are therefore suitable if you want to buy a preparation with a low dosage. They come in different pack sizes, so you can easily stock up on tablets, just like with capsules.

Tablets have the disadvantage that, unlike capsules, they have a taste of their own and can taste bitter in the mouth. This can make it difficult to swallow the tablet.

Rutin tincture

The advantage of a tincture is that it can be dosed easily and individually as needed. The desired amount of drops can be added to sufficient liquid and thus easily taken. This is especially advisable if you have problems swallowing capsules or tablets or do not like to do so.

However, rutin tinctures are rarely offered. In addition, tinctures are usually very expensive compared to the other types of rutin.

How quickly does rutin work?

The body does not store rutin permanently. To benefit from the positive effects of rutin, it should therefore be taken daily and over a longer period of time.

When you take rutin, you should not expect an immediate effect. It takes a while for the body to absorb enough for the positive effects of rutin to take effect. It usually takes about 4 to 8 weeks before the first results from taking rutin become apparent.

Which foods contain rutin?

Since plants need rutin as a colouring and protective substance to protect themselves against UV rays, it is found in many plant foods. Some of these naturally rutin-containing foods are:

  • Figs
  • Asparagus
  • Parsley
  • Buckwheat
  • Blueberries
  • Goji berries
  • Green and black tea

Buckwheat in particular contains a lot of rutin (15). Therefore, buckwheat sprouts or buckwheat teas are a good alternative to rutin capsules or tinctures. Teas are easy to prepare and can be dosed individually as needed. The same applies to buckwheat sprouts. These can be sprinkled over dishes such as salads or soups and thus provide sufficient rutin in the diet.

Fresh apples with skin are a good natural source of rutin. (Image source: Matheus Cenali / unsplash)

In addition, the peels of many fruits and vegetables contain natural rutin. This is especially the case with citrus fruits and apples. That's why it's best to eat fresh, unsprayed apples with their skins on, as important nutrients are lost when they are peeled.

What alternatives are there to rutin?

If you do not want to take capsules or tinctures, you also have the option of taking natural rutin via the rutin-containing foods mentioned above.

Other natural substances that have a similar effect to rutin are listed in the table below.

Species Description
Stinging nettle Stinging nettle is highly valued as a natural medicinal plant. Just like rutin, stinging nettle has an anti-inflammatory effect and can also relieve pain (16).
Horse chestnut The ingredients of horse chestnuts can have positive effects on the blood vessels and thus alleviate symptoms of weak veins in the legs (17).

Of course, there are many other plants in nature that have healing properties. Many of these medicinal plants, such as horse chestnut and sweet clover, can also be bought in combination with rutin to achieve the best possible effect.

Can I take rutin during pregnancy?

There are not enough studies to give a clear answer to the question of whether rutin can be taken safely during pregnancy. However, especially in the first months of pregnancy, you should avoid products like rutin to avoid complications and possible unwanted side effects.

Especially at the beginning of pregnancy, dietary supplements should be avoided.
(Image source: Ignacio Campo / unsplash)

Rutin can help with swollen legs and varicose veins towards the end of pregnancy (18). However, the study on this was only done with a very small number of women and therefore cannot be generalised. Therefore, if you are pregnant, you should discuss taking rutin with your doctor beforehand.

What side effects can occur when taking rutin?

Rutin intolerances are hardly known. However, this does not mean that they do not exist. In a few cases, itching, skin rashes, headaches and digestive problems have occurred after taking rutin.

If you experience any of these symptoms after taking rutin, you should stop taking it. In this case, check with your doctor if you are intolerant to rutin before taking any more.

Image source: Chaicheevinlikit/ 123rf.com

References (18)

1. Nikfarjam BA, Adineh M, Hajiali F, Nassiri-Asl M. Treatment with Rutin - A Therapeutic Strategy for Neutrophil-Mediated Inflammatory and Autoimmune Diseases: - Anti-inflammatory Effects of Rutin on Neutrophils. J Pharmacopuncture. 2017 Mar;20(1):52-56. doi: 10.3831/KPI.2017.20.003. PMID: 28392963; PMCID: PMC5374339.
Source

2. Lin JP, Yang JS, Lin JJ, Lai KC, Lu HF, Ma CY, Sai-Chuen Wu R, Wu KC, Chueh FS, Gibson Wood W, Chung JG. Rutin inhibits human leukemia tumor growth in a murine xenograft model in vivo. Environ Toxicol. 2012 Aug;27(8):480-4. doi: 10.1002/tox.20662. Epub 2011 Jan 20. PMID: 21254320.
Source

3. Araújo JR, Gonçalves P, Martel F. Chemopreventive effect of dietary polyphenols in colorectal cancer cell lines. Nutr Res. 2011 Feb;31(2):77-87. doi: 10.1016/j.nutres.2011.01.006. PMID: 21419311.
Source

4. Wang SW, Wang YJ, Su YJ, Zhou WW, Yang SG, Zhang R, Zhao M, Li YN, Zhang ZP, Zhan DW, Liu RT. Rutin inhibits β-amyloid aggregation and cytotoxicity, attenuates oxidative stress, and decreases the production of nitric oxide and proinflammatory cytokines. Neurotoxicology. 2012 Jun;33(3):482-90. doi: 10.1016/j.neuro.2012.03.003. Epub 2012 Mar 15. PMID: 22445961.
Source

5. Javed H, Khan MM, Ahmad A, Vaibhav K, Ahmad ME, Khan A, Ashafaq M, Islam F, Siddiqui MS, Safhi MM, Islam F. Rutin prevents cognitive impairments by ameliorating oxidative stress and neuroinflammation in rat model of sporadic dementia of Alzheimer type. Neuroscience. 2012 May 17;210:340-52. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2012.02.046. Epub 2012 Mar 6. PMID: 22441036.
Source

6. Kim DW, Hwang IK, Lim SS, Yoo KY, Li H, Kim YS, Kwon DY, Moon WK, Kim DW, Won MH. Germinated Buckwheat extract decreases blood pressure and nitrotyrosine immunoreactivity in aortic endothelial cells in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Phytother Res. 2009 Jul;23(7):993-8. doi: 10.1002/ptr.2739. PMID: 19140152.
Source

7. Chen WM, Jin M, Wu W. [Experimental study on inhibitory effect of rutin against platelet activation induced by platelet activating factor in rabbits]. Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 2002 Apr;22(4):283-5. Chinese. PMID: 12584792.
Source

8. Ihme N, Kiesewetter H, Jung F, Hoffmann KH, Birk A, Müller A, Grützner KI. Leg oedema protection from a buckwheat herb tea in patients with chronic venous insufficiency: a single-centre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 1996;50(6):443-7. doi: 10.1007/s002280050138. PMID: 8858269.
Source

9. Choquenet B, Couteau C, Paparis E, Coiffard LJ. Quercetin and rutin as potential sunscreen agents: determination of efficacy by an in vitro method. J Nat Prod. 2008 Jun;71(6):1117-8. doi: 10.1021/np7007297. Epub 2008 May 31. PMID: 18512988.
Source

10. Choi KS, Kundu JK, Chun KS, Na HK, Surh YJ. Rutin inhibits UVB radiation-induced expression of COX-2 and iNOS in hairless mouse skin: p38 MAP kinase and JNK as potential targets. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2014 Oct 1;559:38-45. doi: 10.1016/j.abb.2014.05.016. Epub 2014 May 26. PMID: 24875145.
Source

11. Choi SJ, Lee SN, Kim K, Joo da H, Shin S, Lee J, Lee HK, Kim J, Kwon SB, Kim MJ, Ahn KJ, An IS, An S, Cha HJ. Biological effects of rutin on skin aging. Int J Mol Med. 2016 Jul;38(1):357-63. doi: 10.3892/ijmm.2016.2604. Epub 2016 May 24. PMID: 27220601.
Source

12. da Silva RR, de Oliveira TT, Nagem TJ, Pinto AS, Albino LF, de Almeida MR, de Moraes GH, Pinto JG. Efeito hipolipidêmico dos flavonóides naringina e rutina [Hypocholesterolemic effect of naringin and rutin flavonoids]. Arch Latinoam Nutr. 2001 Sep;51(3):258-64. Portuguese. PMID: 11795241.
Source

13. Caglayan C, Kandemir FM, Yildirim S, Kucukler S, Eser G. Rutin protects mercuric chloride-induced nephrotoxicity via targeting of aquaporin 1 level, oxidative stress, apoptosis and inflammation in rats. J Trace Elem Med Biol. 2019 Jul;54:69-78. doi: 10.1016/j.jtemb.2019.04.007. Epub 2019 Apr 18. PMID: 31109623.
Source

14. Hsieh TJ, Wang JC, Hu CY, Li CT, Kuo CM, Hsieh SL. Effects of rutin from Toona sinensis on the immune and physiological responses of white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) under Vibrio alginolyticus challenge. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2008 Nov;25(5):581-8. doi: 10.1016/j.fsi.2008.07.014. Epub 2008 Jul 30. PMID: 18718869.
Source

15. I. Kreft, N. Fabjan, K. Yasumoto. Rutin content in buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) food materials and products. Food Chemistry, Volume 98, Issue 3. Pages 508-512. 2006. ISSN 0308-8146. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2005.05.081.
Source

16. Francišković M, Gonzalez-Pérez R, Orčić D, Sánchez de Medina F, Martínez-Augustin O, Svirčev E, Simin N, Mimica-Dukić N. Chemical Composition and Immuno-Modulatory Effects of Urtica dioica L. (Stinging Nettle) Extracts. Phytother Res. 2017 Aug;31(8):1183-1191. doi: 10.1002/ptr.5836. Epub 2017 May 24. PMID: 28544187.
Source

17. Pittler MH, Ernst E. Horse chestnut seed extract for chronic venous insufficiency. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012 Nov 14;11(11):CD003230. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD003230.pub4. PMID: 23152216; PMCID: PMC7144685.
Source

18. Smyth RM, Aflaifel N, Bamigboye AA. Interventions for varicose veins and leg oedema in pregnancy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015 Oct 19;2015(10):CD001066. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD001066.pub3. PMID: 26477632; PMCID: PMC7050615.
Source

Why you can trust me?

Wissenschaftliche Studie
Nikfarjam BA, Adineh M, Hajiali F, Nassiri-Asl M. Treatment with Rutin - A Therapeutic Strategy for Neutrophil-Mediated Inflammatory and Autoimmune Diseases: - Anti-inflammatory Effects of Rutin on Neutrophils. J Pharmacopuncture. 2017 Mar;20(1):52-56. doi: 10.3831/KPI.2017.20.003. PMID: 28392963; PMCID: PMC5374339.
Go to source
Wissenschaftliche Studie
Lin JP, Yang JS, Lin JJ, Lai KC, Lu HF, Ma CY, Sai-Chuen Wu R, Wu KC, Chueh FS, Gibson Wood W, Chung JG. Rutin inhibits human leukemia tumor growth in a murine xenograft model in vivo. Environ Toxicol. 2012 Aug;27(8):480-4. doi: 10.1002/tox.20662. Epub 2011 Jan 20. PMID: 21254320.
Go to source
Wissenschaftlicher Review
Araújo JR, Gonçalves P, Martel F. Chemopreventive effect of dietary polyphenols in colorectal cancer cell lines. Nutr Res. 2011 Feb;31(2):77-87. doi: 10.1016/j.nutres.2011.01.006. PMID: 21419311.
Go to source
Wissenschaftliche Studie
Wang SW, Wang YJ, Su YJ, Zhou WW, Yang SG, Zhang R, Zhao M, Li YN, Zhang ZP, Zhan DW, Liu RT. Rutin inhibits β-amyloid aggregation and cytotoxicity, attenuates oxidative stress, and decreases the production of nitric oxide and proinflammatory cytokines. Neurotoxicology. 2012 Jun;33(3):482-90. doi: 10.1016/j.neuro.2012.03.003. Epub 2012 Mar 15. PMID: 22445961.
Go to source
Wissenschaftliche Studie
Javed H, Khan MM, Ahmad A, Vaibhav K, Ahmad ME, Khan A, Ashafaq M, Islam F, Siddiqui MS, Safhi MM, Islam F. Rutin prevents cognitive impairments by ameliorating oxidative stress and neuroinflammation in rat model of sporadic dementia of Alzheimer type. Neuroscience. 2012 May 17;210:340-52. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2012.02.046. Epub 2012 Mar 6. PMID: 22441036.
Go to source
Wissenschaftliche Studie
Kim DW, Hwang IK, Lim SS, Yoo KY, Li H, Kim YS, Kwon DY, Moon WK, Kim DW, Won MH. Germinated Buckwheat extract decreases blood pressure and nitrotyrosine immunoreactivity in aortic endothelial cells in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Phytother Res. 2009 Jul;23(7):993-8. doi: 10.1002/ptr.2739. PMID: 19140152.
Go to source
Wissenschaftliche Studie
Chen WM, Jin M, Wu W. [Experimental study on inhibitory effect of rutin against platelet activation induced by platelet activating factor in rabbits]. Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 2002 Apr;22(4):283-5. Chinese. PMID: 12584792.
Go to source
Wissenschaftliche Studie
Ihme N, Kiesewetter H, Jung F, Hoffmann KH, Birk A, Müller A, Grützner KI. Leg oedema protection from a buckwheat herb tea in patients with chronic venous insufficiency: a single-centre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 1996;50(6):443-7. doi: 10.1007/s002280050138. PMID: 8858269.
Go to source
Wissenschaftliche Studie
Choquenet B, Couteau C, Paparis E, Coiffard LJ. Quercetin and rutin as potential sunscreen agents: determination of efficacy by an in vitro method. J Nat Prod. 2008 Jun;71(6):1117-8. doi: 10.1021/np7007297. Epub 2008 May 31. PMID: 18512988.
Go to source
Wissenschaftliche Studie
Choi KS, Kundu JK, Chun KS, Na HK, Surh YJ. Rutin inhibits UVB radiation-induced expression of COX-2 and iNOS in hairless mouse skin: p38 MAP kinase and JNK as potential targets. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2014 Oct 1;559:38-45. doi: 10.1016/j.abb.2014.05.016. Epub 2014 May 26. PMID: 24875145.
Go to source
Wissenschaftliche Studie
Choi SJ, Lee SN, Kim K, Joo da H, Shin S, Lee J, Lee HK, Kim J, Kwon SB, Kim MJ, Ahn KJ, An IS, An S, Cha HJ. Biological effects of rutin on skin aging. Int J Mol Med. 2016 Jul;38(1):357-63. doi: 10.3892/ijmm.2016.2604. Epub 2016 May 24. PMID: 27220601.
Go to source
Wissenschaftlicher Review
da Silva RR, de Oliveira TT, Nagem TJ, Pinto AS, Albino LF, de Almeida MR, de Moraes GH, Pinto JG. Efeito hipolipidêmico dos flavonóides naringina e rutina [Hypocholesterolemic effect of naringin and rutin flavonoids]. Arch Latinoam Nutr. 2001 Sep;51(3):258-64. Portuguese. PMID: 11795241.
Go to source
Wissenschaftliche Studie
Caglayan C, Kandemir FM, Yildirim S, Kucukler S, Eser G. Rutin protects mercuric chloride-induced nephrotoxicity via targeting of aquaporin 1 level, oxidative stress, apoptosis and inflammation in rats. J Trace Elem Med Biol. 2019 Jul;54:69-78. doi: 10.1016/j.jtemb.2019.04.007. Epub 2019 Apr 18. PMID: 31109623.
Go to source
Wissenschaftliche Studie
Hsieh TJ, Wang JC, Hu CY, Li CT, Kuo CM, Hsieh SL. Effects of rutin from Toona sinensis on the immune and physiological responses of white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) under Vibrio alginolyticus challenge. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2008 Nov;25(5):581-8. doi: 10.1016/j.fsi.2008.07.014. Epub 2008 Jul 30. PMID: 18718869.
Go to source
Buchsektion
I. Kreft, N. Fabjan, K. Yasumoto. Rutin content in buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) food materials and products. Food Chemistry, Volume 98, Issue 3. Pages 508-512. 2006. ISSN 0308-8146. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2005.05.081.
Go to source
Wissenschaftliche Studie
Francišković M, Gonzalez-Pérez R, Orčić D, Sánchez de Medina F, Martínez-Augustin O, Svirčev E, Simin N, Mimica-Dukić N. Chemical Composition and Immuno-Modulatory Effects of Urtica dioica L. (Stinging Nettle) Extracts. Phytother Res. 2017 Aug;31(8):1183-1191. doi: 10.1002/ptr.5836. Epub 2017 May 24. PMID: 28544187.
Go to source
Wissenschaftliche Studie
Pittler MH, Ernst E. Horse chestnut seed extract for chronic venous insufficiency. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012 Nov 14;11(11):CD003230. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD003230.pub4. PMID: 23152216; PMCID: PMC7144685.
Go to source
Wissenschaftlicher Review
Smyth RM, Aflaifel N, Bamigboye AA. Interventions for varicose veins and leg oedema in pregnancy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015 Oct 19;2015(10):CD001066. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD001066.pub3. PMID: 26477632; PMCID: PMC7050615.
Go to source
Reviews