Last updated: August 11, 2021

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You've probably heard that selenium is an important mineral for the human body. It is good for the immune system, thyroid health and could prevent risks from diseases. However, you've probably also heard that you should be careful about the amount of selenium you take in every day. So you want to know more about the scientific reasons behind it, the right dosage and the effects?

In our selenium tablet test 2022 you will learn everything you need to know about your selenium supply, what exactly you should know about selenium tablets and where you should pay attention when buying and taking them. If, after reading the selenium tablet test, you realise that selenium tablets are not for you, we will introduce you to a few alternatives at the end.




Summary

  • Selenium is an essential mineral for the body that is present in the soil. Especially in most parts of Europe, the soil is low in selenium, which is why many Europeans are recommended to supplement selenium.
  • Since selenium is toxic in high amounts, you should pay attention to the correct dosage. You can either look on the packets for the reference value or buy some that can be cut into pieces. Always read the package leaflet when consuming selenium tablets, as they can have many side effects.
  • Additives are often added to selenium tablets to make them smaller and more compressed. If you want to avoid animal products or allergens, you should be aware of this when buying selenium tablets.

The Best Selenium Tablets: Our Picks

Buying and evaluation criteria for selenium tablets

When buying selenium tablets, you should definitely pay attention to various aspects. Some are more important, some less. These are as follows:

By making the right choice for you, you can save money and also ensure that you don't give your body anything it doesn't need. Therefore, always look for high quality and ask to see the manufacturer's certificates if necessary.

Correct dosage

A selenium deficiency or an overdose of selenium can be harmful to the body. We have summarised exactly why this is the case and further reading options for you in more detail in the question and answer section of this guide.

You should always pay attention to the correct amount recommended by the DGE and EFSA.

The advantage of selenium tablets is that they are automatically dosed. So you don't have to worry about that. Nevertheless, it is always worthwhile to check the information on the packaging again as a precaution. You can also find the summarised recommended amount from nutritional societies in the advice section below.

Suitability for allergy sufferers and people with certain value systems

Tablets are often made with preservatives, binders, fillers, disintegrants or colourings. Tablets are also made from powder. For this reason, companies often use compression aids. However, these can be incompatible for some people. Especially if you have a strong allergy, you should not take selenium tablets that contain potential allergens such as shellfish, gluten or celery. It is always important to read the ingredients and the package leaflet. All allergens are listed there. It also makes sense to pay attention to the type of tablets you buy. If they are hard capsules, they consist of two gelatine halves. However, there are groups of people who reject animal gelatine. For this reason, there are capsule halves made of modified cellulose. Here the raw material comes from plants.

The right form of selenium

When you buy selenium tablets, you can also look for the right form of selenium. The right form depends on your personal taste. Basically, there is organic and inorganically bound selenium. Organic selenium includes selenomethionine. This has a higher bioavailability, which means that selenomethionine can be better absorbed by the body. It also remains available to the organism for longer. Sodium selenite, on the other hand, is an inorganic selenium. Depending on what you find and prefer, you can buy the appropriate package. Both forms can be utilised by the body, but inorganic forms of selenium cannot be absorbed as well by the body.

Free from harmful ingredients

As mentioned above, due to the way they are made, different tablets may have various additives and ingredients that are often unnecessary. However, these can be harmful to health and the environment. Some additives are only mixed in to make the manufacturing process easier. However, some manufacturers deliberately mix in ingredients to drive up the price of the tablets. That's why we recommend buying selenium tablets that are free of unnecessary additives.

Right price-performance ratio

With everything mentioned above, price plays a big role. While low-priced selenium tablets may seem to make more economic sense at first glance, they should still be taken with a grain of salt: The low-priced food supplements often contain unnecessary additives. In addition, they tend to be low-dosed. This means you have to take more tablets per day to get the desired dosage. This way, you quickly have to buy more tablets, which means you end up spending more money to get the desired effect.

For less money, you can get higher quality supplements that have your desired dosage and good bioavailability. Therefore, in the case of selenium tablets, a price-performance comparison is definitely worthwhile. In some cases, however, intolerances can occur even with high-quality food supplements. That's why some retailers offer a satisfaction guarantee. This can be a way for you to get selenium tablets at a low price and return them if you have any complaints. This way you can buy selenium tablets without risk.

Guide: Frequently asked questions about selenium tablets answered in detail

In order to inform you comprehensively about the effectiveness of selenium tablets and to give you an understanding of the current state of science, we have summarised all the important information in the following sections.

What are selenium tablets and how do they work?

Selenium is a mineral that is important for our body. If you have a selenium deficiency, you can buy selenium in various forms over the counter. Selenium tablets have a standardised selenium content per tablet. The selenium tablets are easy to swallow and are good to take with you when travelling. Selenium tablets are said to have many different healing effects. If you read through various studies, you will sometimes find contradictory results. We have obtained an overview and presented a summary for you.

Selen-Tabletten-1

Selenium is also found in natural foods. Porcini mushrooms and Brazil nuts contain a lot of selenium. On the other hand, the values vary greatly, so you have to decide for yourself whether you want to rely on porcini mushrooms and Brazil nuts.
(Image source: unsplash.com / Yuri Bodrikhin)

It is important for you to know in advance that many studies show a definite positive effect of sufficient selenium intake on general health, our immune system and is beneficial for thyroid diseases. With regard to other diseases, science is not yet in a hurry.

Positive effect on general health and the immune system

It has been proven that sufficient selenium in the body maintains health and strengthens the immune system. Other people with autoimmune diseases, such as Hashimoto's thyroiditis, also seem to be able to use selenium to their advantage. In addition, various studies show that mild to moderate Graves' orbitopathy patients respond positively to adequate selenium intake. (1) . Some studies also suggest that insufficient selenium intake in people leads to a deterioration of cognitive abilities (2).

Positive effects in thyroid disorders

The mineral selenium is involved in the metabolism of thyroid hormones. Sufficient selenium intake can therefore prevent thyroid diseases. In addition, people with thyroid diseases should pay attention to an increased selenium intake. This is because they are at increased risk for selenium deficiency (1).

Potentially lower risk of cardiovascular disease, cancer and overall mortality risk

Selenium can reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease (3). Nevertheless, care must be taken because not all of them can be relied upon due to minimal differences in implementation (4). Some studies, on the other hand, are clearly against selenium helping against cardiovascular diseases (5). The topics of cancer and cancer prevention have not yet been fully researched. All statements are therefore not definitive and should be taken with caution. There are some meta-analyses that see a possible link between selenium supplements and cancer prevention (6).

Others say that sufficient selenium reduces the risk of breast, lung, oesophageal, stomach and prostate cancer. Yet they have not seen a link to cancer prevention of colon, bladder and skin cancer (7). However, it is important to say here that not all scientific studies see a positive link between cancer and selenium(8, 9). Clinical studies have shown more selenium in older people than in those who died earlier. Nevertheless, there are still not enough scientifically proven studies on the subject. According to this, sufficient selenium intake could lead to a longer life. On the other hand, it can also simply be part of a good healthy condition in interaction with other vitamins and minerals (10, 11).

When and for whom does it make sense to take selenium tablets?

Whether you should consider supplementing depends entirely on your diet and lifestyle. It is not always possible to get enough selenium naturally. We have summarised exactly which groups are affected in the following table.

Population group Justification
People living in regions with selenium-poor soils A study commissioned by the European Commission shows that soils in Europe have low selenium concentrations (12). Therefore, Europeans and other populations from areas with low selenium content in the soil are particularly undersupplied with selenium (13).
People who eat little to no animal products All forms of vegetarianism and veganism avoid eating animal products almost or completely. Therefore, they may be more deficient in selenium (14). Animal breeders, on the other hand, may fortify their animals' feed with selenium (15). Meat eaters are therefore less likely to be affected by selenium deficiency.

To avoid an undersupply and a selenium deficit, eating selenium-rich food or selenium supplements in a balanced healthy diet can definitely be a sensible measure (13, 12).

How do I take selenium tablets?

Selenium tablets must always be swallowed with sufficient liquid. Water is the most neutral drink and contains hardly any substances that could lead to side effects. Juices, cola, coffee and black tea can react with ingredients and thus reduce the effect. Dairy products or fruit juices in particular can influence the effects and side effects of some medicines. The amount of liquid is also important so that the tablet reaches the stomach as quickly as possible and can dissolve well there. Otherwise, side effects may occur or the selenium tablet may have a delayed effect. 150 to 240 millilitres should be drunk with the intake in any case.

If the tablets are melted, simply fill a glass with water and wait until the tablet has dissolved. Afterwards, it is best to stir it again. Other selenium tablets are taken with a sip of water in the mouth and swallowed before drinking more water. If you have trouble swallowing, do not rest your head on the back of your neck, but instead pull your chin towards your chest. This reduces the risk that the tablet will remain in your mouth after the first swallow. You can crumble divisible tablets and mix them into viscous food. In the case of selenium tablets for children, this can also be a sweet dessert. If all this doesn't work, you can think about taking other forms of selenium.

How much do selenium tablets cost?

The more expensive selenium supplements are often vitamin and mineral complexes. In general, tablets with many additives are cheaper. Accordingly, you can see in the following table that film-coated and effervescent tablets are cheaper than, for example, lozenges and melting tablets.

Type of tablet cost
Film-coated tablets € 5 - € 65
Effervescent tablets € 3 - € 70
Chewable and lozenges € 13 - € 50
Enamel tablets € 8 - € 24

We did not find a price difference between vegan and non-vegan variants of selenium tablets.

Selen-Tabletten-2

Selenium tablets are available in different types and from different places. Nevertheless, they are usually sold like this pack.
(Image source: unsplash.com / Anastasiia Ostapovych)

What types of selenium tablets are there?

There are different types of selenium tablets so that they are easier to swallow, protected from light or particularly effective: Film-coated tablets, chewable and lozenges, effervescent tablets and lingual and sublingual tablets (melting tablets). We have briefly described the differences for you here.

Type of selenium tablet Description
Film-coated tablets These tablets are covered with a protective film. This is to protect the active ingredient from light. It also makes it easier to swallow.
Chewable and lozenge tablets If you have to take a large amount of selenium, the tablet may be too big to swallow. There are tablets that you can chew or suck in your mouth to reduce the size. However, this is rarely the case with selenium, as the recommended amount to be taken is not very large.
Effervescent tablets If a large amount of active ingredient is to be taken, selenium tablets can possibly be dissolved in water to make a drink with flavour. Nevertheless, this form usually contains many unnecessary additives and flavourings. Sodium carbonate in particular, as an effervescent element, can be disproportionate. If you are on a low-sodium diet, for example if you have kidney damage, you should be careful at this point.
Lingual and sublingual tablets (melting tablets) melting tablets often do not have a coating. Lingual tablets dissolve in the mouth, sublingual tablets are placed under the tongue. In this way, the active ingredient enters the body via the oral mucosa or tongue.

As you have seen, most selenium tablets are not coated with a protective layer, so there is no risk of gelatine being used for protection. Only the ingredients may contain animal products. All the selenium preparations mentioned can be bought as single preparations, i.e. with only selenium as the active ingredient, or as combination preparations with other vitamins or minerals.

How should selenium tablets be dosed?

There are official reference values for healthy people based on joint studies by the German Nutrition Society (DGE) and the nutrition societies from Switzerland and Austria. Basically, the recommended daily amount depends on gender, age and body weight. Since the values in the studies are partly extrapolated and also strongly dependent on diets and lifestyles, the values given are only for orientation and should be taken with caution (13, 12).

In general, men need 70 and women 60 micrograms per day. During pregnancy, a small additional amount of two micrograms per day can be introduced to supply the fetus. However, since this value is very low, the nutrition societies in the German area recommend the same value of 60 micrograms per day. Breastfeeding mothers are recommended by the societies to take 75 micrograms per day, as they pass on some selenium through the breast milk. The nutrient value for children and adolescents is extrapolated. Here, the value for adults is set in relation to body weight. Infants between zero and under four months are only recommended 10 micrograms per day. This is because they absorb additional selenium through their mother's milk. Babies between four and twelve months have a reference value of about 15 micrograms per day (13).

What are the alternatives to selenium tablets?

If you find that selenium tablets are not for you, you can take other tablets. Besides tablets, you can also buy selenium in the form of capsules (hard capsules, gelatine-free hard capsules and soft capsules) as well as in powder and drop form. Capsules consist of a capsule shell and contain powdered selenium. We have summarised the advantages and disadvantages of selenium tablets and their alternatives in a table.

Dosage form Advantages Disadvantages
Selenium tablets Tablets are easy to dose because the amount is always measured exactly by machine. Selenium tablets are easy to swallow. In addition, because of their size and safe packaging, selenium tablets are easy to take with you on trips if you only want to change a small amount, this form of supplementation is not suitable. Tablets often have additional additives, such as a compression aid.
Selenium capsules They are free of pressing aids or similar. They are smaller than tablets and are therefore easier to swallow. The active ingredient content is standardised as with tablets. This enables precise dosage. Soft capsules are not necessarily softer, but can be chewed in the mouth if swallowing is difficult capsule shells are often made from gelatine. This comes from different countries of origin. Alternatively, you can use hard capsules made from modified cellulose. The raw material comes from plants.
Selenium powder With powder, you don't have to swallow tablets or capsules. You can simply stir the powder into the liquid and drink it the powder can have an unpleasant aftertaste due to flavourings
Selenium drops Selenium in drop form can be dosed very precisely because of the pipette. They contain little to no additives and are ideal for people who can't swallow tablets or want to avoid gelatine completely Because of the dosage, it is difficult to take selenium drops with you when travelling. As with the powder, there can be an unpleasant aftertaste due to the flavours. The shelf life is also limited.

So there is a wide range of different ways to supplement selenium. Which one you take depends primarily on your personal taste and whether you want to swallow tablets or not.

Selen-Tabletten-3

Selenium capsules are usually made from gelatine, but can also be made from vegetable gelatine. The capsule contains selenium in powder form.
(Image source: unsplash.com / Avinash Kumar)

What are the side effects of selenium tablets?

An overdose can potentially lead to increased risks of disease and is therefore not recommended (13, 12). Based on a number of different studies, the Robert Koch Institute has summarised the following side effects of selenium tablets.

  • Garlicky breath odour due to dimethylselenide
  • Patchy, streaky, brittle nails and loss of nails
  • Brittle hair or hair loss
  • Tooth decay or loss
  • Discolouration of the skin or skin rashes
  • Pain in the extremities
  • Overly sensitive reflexes
  • Gastrointestinal complaints
  • Fatigue, sluggishness, exhaustion, indifference, poor performance (16).

As with all vitamins, minerals and other micronutrients, you should consult closely with your doctor or pharmacist if you are taking medications or similar.

How does a deficiency of selenium affect the body?

A deficiency of selenium can come from insufficient selenium intake through regional food from areas with selenium-poor soils. But alcoholics are also usually severely deficient in selenium. The following symptoms can be exhibited in the case of a selenium deficiency:

  • Fatigue
  • Lack of performance
  • Hair loss
  • Liver dysfunction
  • Arthritis
  • White colouring of the fingernails
  • Muscle weakness
  • Infertility (16).

Conclusion

As you can see, the symptoms of a selenium deficiency are similar to the side effects of selenium tablets. Especially if you are tired and have poor performance, you should check whether your dose of selenium tablets was too low or whether you are actually experiencing side effects from selenium tablets. It is best to have yourself tested by a doctor and get advice from pharmacists and trained nutrition experts.

Image source: inuella123/ 123rf.com

References (16)

1. Ventura M, Melo M, Carrilho F. Selenium and Thyroid Disease: From Pathophysiology to Treatment. Int J Endocrinol. 2017;2017:1297658. doi: 10.1155/2017/1297658. Epub 2017 Jan 31. PMID: 28255299; PMCID: PMC5307254.
Source

2. Rayman MP. Selenium and human health. Lancet. 2012 Mar 31;379(9822):1256-68. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(11)61452-9. Epub 2012 Feb 29. PMID: 22381456.
Source

3. Zhang X, Liu C, Guo J, Song Y. Selenium status and cardiovascular diseases: meta-analysis of prospective observational studies and randomized controlled trials. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2016 Feb;70(2):162-9. doi: 10.1038/ejcn.2015.78. Epub 2015 May 20. PMID: 25990689.
Source

4. Flores-Mateo G, Navas-Acien A, Pastor-Barriuso R, Guallar E. Selenium and coronary heart disease: a meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006 Oct;84(4):762-73. doi: 10.1093/ajcn/84.4.762. PMID: 17023702; PMCID: PMC1829306.
Source

5. Rees K, Hartley L, Day C, Flowers N, Clarke A, Stranges S. Selenium supplementation for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013 Jan 31;2013(1):CD009671. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD009671.pub2. PMID: 23440843; PMCID: PMC7433291.
Source

6. Lee EH, Myung SK, Jeon YJ, Kim Y, Chang YJ, Ju W, Seo HG, Huh BY. Effects of selenium supplements on cancer prevention: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Nutr Cancer. 2011 Nov;63(8):1185-95. doi: 10.1080/01635581.2011.607544. Epub 2011 Oct 17. PMID: 22004275.
Source

7. Cai X, Wang C, Yu W, Fan W, Wang S, Shen N, Wu P, Li X, Wang F. Selenium Exposure and Cancer Risk: an Updated Meta-analysis and Meta-regression. Sci Rep. 2016 Jan 20;6:19213. doi: 10.1038/srep19213. PMID: 26786590; PMCID: PMC4726178.
Source

8. Fritz H, Kennedy D, Fergusson D, Fernandes R, Cooley K, Seely A, Sagar S, Wong R, Seely D. Selenium and lung cancer: a systematic review and meta analysis. PLoS One. 2011;6(11):e26259. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0026259. Epub 2011 Nov 4. PMID: 22073154; PMCID: PMC3208545.
Source

9. Hurst R, Hooper L, Norat T, Lau R, Aune D, Greenwood DC, Vieira R, Collings R, Harvey LJ, Sterne JA, Beynon R, Savović J, Fairweather-Tait SJ. Selenium and prostate cancer: systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr. 2012 Jul;96(1):111-22. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.111.033373. Epub 2012 May 30. PMID: 22648711.
Source

10. N Tasnime Akbaraly, Josiane Arnaud, Isabelle Hininger-Favier, Veronique Gourlet, Anne-Marie Roussel, Claudine Berr, Selenium and Mortality in the Elderly: Results from the EVA Study, Clinical Chemistry, Volume 51, Issue 11, 1 November 2005, Pages 2117–2123, https://doi.org/10.1373/clinchem.2005.055301
Source

11. Amanda L. Ray, Richard D. Semba, Jeremy Walston, Luigi Ferrucci, Anne R. Cappola, Michelle O. Ricks, Qian-Li Xue, Linda P. Fried, Low Serum Selenium and Total Carotenoids Predict Mortality among Older Women Living in the Community: The Women's Health and Aging Studies, The Journal of Nutrition, Volume 136, Issue 1, January 2006, Pages 172–176, https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/136.1.172
Source

12. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2014. Scientific Opinion on Dietary Reference Values for selenium. EFSA Journal 2014;12(10):3846, 67 pp. doi:10.2903/j.efsa.2014.3846
Source

13. A.P. Kipp, D. Strohm, R. Brigelius-Flohé, L. Schomburg, A. Bechthold, E. Leschik-Bonnet, H. Heseker, Revised reference values for selenium intake, Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, Volume 32, 2015, Pages 195-199, ISSN 0946-672X, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtemb.2015.07.005.
Source

14. Richter M, Boeing H, Grünewald-Funk D, Heseker H, Kroke A, Leschik-Bonnet E, Oberritter H, Strohm D, Watzl B for the German Nutrition Society (DGE) (2016) Vegan diet. Position of the German Nutrition Society (DGE). Ernahrungs Umschau 63(04): 92–102. Erratum in: 63(05): M262
Source

15. Richtlinie 70/524/EWG des Rates über Zusatzstoffe in der Tierernährung (2004/C 50/01), veröffentlicht gemäß Artikel 9t Buchstabe b) (ABl. C 50 vom 25.2.2004, S. 43).
Source

16. Bundesgesundheitsbl-Gesundheitsforsch-Gesundheitsschutz 2006 · 49:88–102DOI 10.1007/s00103-005-1185-4 Online publiziert: 15. Dezember 2005 © Springer Medizin Verlag 2005.
Source

Wissenschaftliche Review
Ventura M, Melo M, Carrilho F. Selenium and Thyroid Disease: From Pathophysiology to Treatment. Int J Endocrinol. 2017;2017:1297658. doi: 10.1155/2017/1297658. Epub 2017 Jan 31. PMID: 28255299; PMCID: PMC5307254.
Go to source
Wissenschaftliche Review
Rayman MP. Selenium and human health. Lancet. 2012 Mar 31;379(9822):1256-68. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(11)61452-9. Epub 2012 Feb 29. PMID: 22381456.
Go to source
Wissenschaftliche Meta-Analyse
Zhang X, Liu C, Guo J, Song Y. Selenium status and cardiovascular diseases: meta-analysis of prospective observational studies and randomized controlled trials. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2016 Feb;70(2):162-9. doi: 10.1038/ejcn.2015.78. Epub 2015 May 20. PMID: 25990689.
Go to source
Wissenschaftliche Meta-Analyse
Flores-Mateo G, Navas-Acien A, Pastor-Barriuso R, Guallar E. Selenium and coronary heart disease: a meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006 Oct;84(4):762-73. doi: 10.1093/ajcn/84.4.762. PMID: 17023702; PMCID: PMC1829306.
Go to source
Wissenschaftliche Review
Rees K, Hartley L, Day C, Flowers N, Clarke A, Stranges S. Selenium supplementation for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013 Jan 31;2013(1):CD009671. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD009671.pub2. PMID: 23440843; PMCID: PMC7433291.
Go to source
Wissenschaftliche Meta-Analyse
Lee EH, Myung SK, Jeon YJ, Kim Y, Chang YJ, Ju W, Seo HG, Huh BY. Effects of selenium supplements on cancer prevention: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Nutr Cancer. 2011 Nov;63(8):1185-95. doi: 10.1080/01635581.2011.607544. Epub 2011 Oct 17. PMID: 22004275.
Go to source
Wissenschaftliche Meta-Analyse
Cai X, Wang C, Yu W, Fan W, Wang S, Shen N, Wu P, Li X, Wang F. Selenium Exposure and Cancer Risk: an Updated Meta-analysis and Meta-regression. Sci Rep. 2016 Jan 20;6:19213. doi: 10.1038/srep19213. PMID: 26786590; PMCID: PMC4726178.
Go to source
Wissenschaftliche Review
Fritz H, Kennedy D, Fergusson D, Fernandes R, Cooley K, Seely A, Sagar S, Wong R, Seely D. Selenium and lung cancer: a systematic review and meta analysis. PLoS One. 2011;6(11):e26259. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0026259. Epub 2011 Nov 4. PMID: 22073154; PMCID: PMC3208545.
Go to source
Wissenschaftliche Review
Hurst R, Hooper L, Norat T, Lau R, Aune D, Greenwood DC, Vieira R, Collings R, Harvey LJ, Sterne JA, Beynon R, Savović J, Fairweather-Tait SJ. Selenium and prostate cancer: systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr. 2012 Jul;96(1):111-22. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.111.033373. Epub 2012 May 30. PMID: 22648711.
Go to source
Klinische Studie
N Tasnime Akbaraly, Josiane Arnaud, Isabelle Hininger-Favier, Veronique Gourlet, Anne-Marie Roussel, Claudine Berr, Selenium and Mortality in the Elderly: Results from the EVA Study, Clinical Chemistry, Volume 51, Issue 11, 1 November 2005, Pages 2117–2123, https://doi.org/10.1373/clinchem.2005.055301
Go to source
Klinische Studie
Amanda L. Ray, Richard D. Semba, Jeremy Walston, Luigi Ferrucci, Anne R. Cappola, Michelle O. Ricks, Qian-Li Xue, Linda P. Fried, Low Serum Selenium and Total Carotenoids Predict Mortality among Older Women Living in the Community: The Women's Health and Aging Studies, The Journal of Nutrition, Volume 136, Issue 1, January 2006, Pages 172–176, https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/136.1.172
Go to source
Wissenschaftlicher Artikel
EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2014. Scientific Opinion on Dietary Reference Values for selenium. EFSA Journal 2014;12(10):3846, 67 pp. doi:10.2903/j.efsa.2014.3846
Go to source
Wissenschaftliche Studie
A.P. Kipp, D. Strohm, R. Brigelius-Flohé, L. Schomburg, A. Bechthold, E. Leschik-Bonnet, H. Heseker, Revised reference values for selenium intake, Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, Volume 32, 2015, Pages 195-199, ISSN 0946-672X, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtemb.2015.07.005.
Go to source
Wissenschaftlicher Artikel
Richter M, Boeing H, Grünewald-Funk D, Heseker H, Kroke A, Leschik-Bonnet E, Oberritter H, Strohm D, Watzl B for the German Nutrition Society (DGE) (2016) Vegan diet. Position of the German Nutrition Society (DGE). Ernahrungs Umschau 63(04): 92–102. Erratum in: 63(05): M262
Go to source
Amtsblatt gem. einer gesetzlichen Richtlinie
Richtlinie 70/524/EWG des Rates über Zusatzstoffe in der Tierernährung (2004/C 50/01), veröffentlicht gemäß Artikel 9t Buchstabe b) (ABl. C 50 vom 25.2.2004, S. 43).
Go to source
Wissenschaftlicher Artikel
Bundesgesundheitsbl-Gesundheitsforsch-Gesundheitsschutz 2006 · 49:88–102DOI 10.1007/s00103-005-1185-4 Online publiziert: 15. Dezember 2005 © Springer Medizin Verlag 2005.
Go to source
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