Vitamin D for children has an important influence on brain development during the growth phase. Vitamin D also supports the development of teeth and the absorption of calcium in the intestine, but also the maintenance of an intact immune system and the defence against infections. Vitamin D is not a vitamin but a hormone, 80% of which is absorbed from UV sunlight and 20% from food.
If a child has a healthy vitamin D level, it is not necessary to take additional vitamin D supplements. In our vitamin D for children test 2021 we want to tell you why vitamin D supplements are given to children and how an overdose or undersupply can occur. We compare vitamin D supplements, which are usually available without a prescription in pharmacies, and inform you about the intake and purchase criteria of vitamin D.
- 1 Weekly newsletter with the best personal finance tips
- 2 Summary
- 3 The Best Vitamin D For Children: Our Picks
- 4 Buying criteria: These are the factors you can use to compare and evaluate vitamin D supplements for children
- 5 Guide: Questions you should ask yourself before buying vitamin D for children
- 5.1 What is vitamin D?
- 5.2 How does vitamin D work in children?
- 5.3 How important is vitamin D for children?
- 5.4 When is vitamin D useful for children?
- 5.5 How can I measure vitamin D levels in children?
- 5.6 What do high-quality vitamin D supplements for children cost?
- 5.7 What side effects can children have when taking vitamin D?
- 5.8 What are the alternatives to vitamin D for children?
- 6 Decision: What are the types of vitamin D for children?
- 7 Facts worth knowing about vitamin D for children
- Vitamin D for children is an extremely important nutrient for the growth of teeth, protection of the immune system and brain development.
- Vitamin D is actually not a vitamin, but a hormone, which the body gets 80% of from the sun and 20% from food. Therefore, taking vitamin supplements is more necessary when there is a deficiency or during the winter months.
- Many people have a higher need for vitamin D, such as the elderly and children. Especially babies and children who hardly spend any time in the sun and wear too much sunscreen usually suffer from a vitamin D deficiency.
The Best Vitamin D For Children: Our Picks
Buying criteria: These are the factors you can use to compare and evaluate vitamin D supplements for children
In the following, we will show you which factors you can use to compare and evaluate vitamin D3 preparations for children. However, you should always discuss taking vitamin D supplements for children with a doctor beforehand. The appropriate dosages and which preparation your child should take will be decided by the doctor. With the help of these criteria, we just want to educate you about vitamin D and give you an overview. In summary, vitamin D preparations can be differentiated according to the following characteristics:
The units for dosing vitamin D are given in µg as well as in IU (international units). 1 µg corresponds to 40 IU. 50 µg or 000 IU of vitamin D per day is the maximum recommended dose in northern countries. The German Nutrition Society recommends 800 IU for adults. People with severe vitamin D deficiency receive 50,000 IU (1,250 µg) once and are then treated with a daily dose of 10,000 IU (250 µg).
Depending on the type of application and dosage, vitamin D preparations are classified as medicinal products or food supplements. According to the Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR), food supplements should contain a maximum of 20 micrograms of vitamin D and vitamin D preparations in higher doses are considered medicinal products. (10) The amount of vitamin D dosage for children should be based on the previously determined vitamin D blood levels from the doctor. If the vitamin D stores are well filled, you do not need to give the child any food supplements. In most cases, however, children have an undersupply, especially in the winter months. The standard dose of vitamin D that should be taken daily via food supplements is as follows:
- Babies up to 1 year of age 400 IU
- Children from the age of 1 1,000 IU
- Adolescents 1,000 IU per twelve kilograms of body weight
- Adults 5,000 IU
- Pregnant women 4,000 to 6,000 IU
Specifically: Vitamin D supplementation in the form of drops, 400 IU in the 1st year of life, 600 IU in the 2nd and 3rd years of life, is recommended for infants from 3 months and children up to the 3rd birthday.
According to the Austrian Society for Nutrition (ÖGE), the estimated value for vitamin D intake for infants, children, adolescents and adults is 15-20 micrograms per day. (11) However, depending on latitude, season, skin type and age, vitamin D formation can vary from person to person. For infants up to 12 months, a vitamin D requirement of 10 micrograms per day is given.(11) It is also said that the upper safe limit of vitamin D intake is 25 µg per day for children (1,000 IU) and 50 µg per day for adults (2,000 IU). Infants in the first year of life: 400 IU/day, children in the 2nd and 3rd year of life: 600 IU/day. Especially in children, these amounts cannot be achieved with common foods containing vitamin D alone, so dietary supplements can provide support.
For an optimal vitamin D effect, it is recommended to take vitamin D in combination with magnesium and vitamin K2. Since vitamin D strongly promotes calcium absorption, vitamin K is helpful because it regulates the increased calcium absorption. Attention should also be paid to a sufficient supply of magnesium, because it is needed for the conversion of vitamin D into its active form.
- Vitamin D with magnesium and K2: When it comes to bone formation, the two fat-soluble vitamins work closely together, because vitamin K contributes not only to normal blood clotting but also to the maintenance of normal bones. Since more calcium is absorbed through food when taking vitamin D supplements, our body needs enough vitamin K2 to properly utilise the extra calcium. Therefore, when taking vitamin D regularly, you should always make sure to combine it with magnesium and K2 vitamins.
- Vitamin D with Omega 3: against irritability and hyperactivity in children. Irritability and hyperactivity are symptoms that occur in children with autism, the intensity of which can be significantly reduced by both vitamin D and the administration of omega 3 fatty acids. Vitamin D and omega-3 fatty acids prevent the development of autism already in the womb and later in childhood. However, both micronutrients also help to positively influence the course of the disease as a therapeutic agent in already existing ASD disorders and to reduce the symptoms. (13)
If you buy combined preparations, it would also be advisable to check whether the ingredients are contained in the correct ratio. For example, vitamin D can be combined with 30 - 100 µg of vitamin K2 MK7.
Depending on the dosage form of tablets or drops, the preparations contain different amounts of additives. Particularly for sensitive persons, allergy sufferers and especially children, the substances should be avoided at all costs. Additives such as colourants and preservatives, thickeners and gelling agents, acidifiers and flavour enhancers or magnesium stearate can be found in vitamin D preparations. These are not always listed by name, but are also listed as E-numbers. The highest quality vitamin D supplements do not contain any additives and are free from common allergens such as maize, soy, yeast, peanut, gluten and lactose. Supplements suitable for vegetarians and vegans also contain no gelatine or other ingredients of animal origin.
Vegan / Vegetarian
In nature, vitamin D2 is found in vegetables such as mushrooms and avocados, whereas vitamin D3 is found almost exclusively in animal products. In the meantime, however, vegetable vitamin D3 can also be obtained from certain plant lichens. Most vitamin D preparations are not vegan because the active ingredient cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) is mainly obtained from the wool wax or wool fat of sheep (lanolin). Nowadays, however, it is possible to produce vegan vitamin D3 from a certain type of lichen. Lichens do not belong to the group of plants, but to the fungi. Moreover, animal and vegan vitamin D3 from lichens are equally bioavailable to our body. (3) Thus, vegans also have the possibility to improve their nutrient supply through a targeted dietary supplementation with vitamin D.
Guide: Questions you should ask yourself before buying vitamin D for children
What is vitamin D?
Vitamin D actually means vitamin D3, which the body usually produces enough of by absorbing sunlight. Preparations with vitamin D are therefore criticised. Unlike all other vitamins, vitamin D does not have to be taken in with food. It is essential for a healthy mineral and bone balance and is stored in the body fat.
How does vitamin D work in children?
Big player in the immune system
Calcitriol, the active form of vitamin D, is a hard-working helper in the immune system. Studies with children show (1) that a good supply of vitamin D can reduce the risk of respiratory infections: Those children who received 30 µg of vitamin D daily as a supplement had a 62% lower risk of contracting influenza.
Against autoimmune diseases
Autoimmune processes play a decisive role in the development of type 1 diabetes. Vitamin D could have a protective effect due to its immunomodulating effect. A study (2) showed that children who received vitamin D supplements had an 88% lower risk of type 1 diabetes than those who did not.
Brain development is strongly vitamin D-dependent
Brain researchers have discovered that vitamin D receptors are also located in the nerve cells of the brain (3). In addition, the enzymes that promote the formation of calcitriol in the brain have been identified. It seems certain that vitamin D also plays an essential role in the development and function of the brain and is therefore particularly important in the first 1000 days (from conception to the 2nd birthday).
How important is vitamin D for children?
Strengthening the immune system against infectious and autoimmune diseases, as well as a positive influence on the cardiovascular system, can be important not only in old age, but also at a young age. Children who spend a lot of time indoors during the summer months, or whose skin is covered with sunscreen, cannot absorb natural vitamin D from the sun. In this case, a supply of vitamin D supplements is important in any case. From the 2nd week of life, vitamin D is administered to infants to prevent deficiency, bone diseases and rickets. The Swiss authorities recommend supplementation during the first three years of life, i.e. until the 3rd birthday. This is because the intake from breast milk is often not sufficient to supply the infants. And the diet only provides a small contribution. That is why it is important to give vitamin D at a young age for healthy growth.
When is vitamin D useful for children?
Those who also do not spend enough time outdoors, always wear long clothing or always wear sunscreen cannot absorb enough vitamin D and therefore also need to be supported with supplements. Infants and toddlers are generally among the groups of people who have an increased vitamin D requirement that needs to be met with vitamin supplementation. During early childhood, especially in the first 1000 days (from conception to the 2nd birthday), vitamin D is indispensable. (4) The intake of vitamin D supplements is only recommended if an insufficient supply has been proven and if an improvement of the supply can neither be achieved by diet nor by sun exposure. (12)
How can I measure vitamin D levels in children?
|Vitamin D supply||values in ng/ml||values in nmol/l|
|Vitamin D deficiency||less than 20||less than 50|
|Vitamin D deficiency||20 to 35||50 to 80|
|Good to high vitamin D levels||35 to 90||80 to 225|
|Vitamin D over-supply||90 to 150||225 to 374|
|Toxic vitamin D level||more than 150||more than 374|
It is not possible to give a general value as optimal, because values can only be a kind of guideline with the help of which one can find one's own optimal value. To avoid confusion in the interpretation of vitamin D values, it should be taken into account that vitamin D values can be given in two different units. In ng/ml or nmol/l. 1 ng/ml corresponds to 2.5 nmol/l. You can find more information about the values given and an adequate intake of vitamin D in case of vitamin D deficiency at the German Nutrition Society (DGE).
What do high-quality vitamin D supplements for children cost?
|from € 13 - € 40||from € 5 - € 50||from € 3 - € 12||from € 10 - € 60||from € 12 - € 15|
As you can see, capsules and preparations in liquid form are more expensive than tablets. It is definitely worth it if you dig a little deeper into your pocket, because the more expensive drops have a higher bioavailability and are also the best tolerated (for allergy sufferers). However, the costs for the additional vitamin D supplements are only covered by the insurance companies during the first 12 to 18 months of the baby's life. On the other hand, if there is a vitamin D deficiency confirmed by your doctor and he prescribes the supplement, the costs are usually covered by the health insurance.
What side effects can children have when taking vitamin D?
An unauthorised intake and dosage of vitamin D without prior consultation with a doctor or pharmacist should generally not be taken. People often act according to the motto "a lot helps a lot" and this has already led to kidney damage in adults. (8) In case of an overdose in a child, you should pay close attention to the behaviour. How is the appetite? Have the stools and urination changed? Does the child cry more, is he restless? Has the activity behaviour changed? Is the child sleeping longer/shorter? If the child's behaviour is abnormal, you should definitely consult a doctor. There is no danger of overdosing through the sun, because the body has a natural protective function here and stops production if the skin is exposed to the sun for too long.
What are the alternatives to vitamin D for children?
Diet accounts for only a relatively small proportion of vitamin D, around 10 to 20 per cent. Foods rich in vitamin D are mainly mushrooms, low-fat sea fish and eggs. If you have a vitamin D deficiency, you will have to take a vitamin D supplement anyway. Nevertheless, we would like to show you the most vitamin D-rich foods and their vitamin D content.
|Food sources of vitamin D||food source IU vitamin D|
|wild salmon||600-1000 IU per 100 grams|
|farmed salmon||100-250 IU per 100 grams|
|canned sardines||300-600 IU per 100 grams|
|canned mackerel||250 IU per 100 grams|
|canned tuna||236 IU per 100 grams|
|cod liver oil||400-1000 IU per tablespoon|
|Shiitake mushrooms fresh||100 IU per 100 grams|
|Shiitake mushrooms sun-dried||1600 IU per 100 grams|
|Egg yolk||20 IU/yolk|
|Mushrooms fresh||76 IU per 100 grams|
|Butter||52 IU per 100|
|gramadapted infant milk (Hipp, Adapta)||approx. 40-44 IU per 100 ml|
In summer, it is sufficient for children to be exposed to sunlight three to four times a week for 15 to 30 minutes each time. Exposure of the arms, hands and face is sufficient. However, the skin should not be covered with sunscreen, so that the UVB radiation cannot be absorbed and converted. Light-skinned children who get sunburned quickly should not be exposed to the midday sun. In the cold months, humans have a vitamin D depot in their fatty tissue that helps them through the winter. This table shows the recommended sun exposure for the body's own vitamin D production according to skin type:
|months||Skin type I to II (very fair to light skin, light red or blond hair, blue or green eyes)||Skin type III (medium skin tone, brown hair, brown eyes)||Skin type IV to V (olive skin, brown to black skin, brown to black hair, brown eyes)|
|March - May||10 to 20 minutes||15 to 25 minutes||30 to 40 minutes|
|June to August||5 to 10 minutes||10 to 15 minutes||10 to 25 minutes|
|September to October||10 to 20 minutes||15 to 25 minutes||30 to 40 minutes|
Decision: What are the types of vitamin D for children?
There are only the forms vitamin D1, D2, D3, D4 and D5. If you ask for vitamin D, you will always get vitamin D3. This is the natural vitamin D that is produced in the human body. Vitamin D1, D2, D4 and D5, on the other hand, are artificially produced vitamins with different stages in the utilisation process. Vitamin D preparations are available in low and high dosages from 100 IU up to 50,000 IU. Vitamin D3 is mainly available in the form of drops, tablets and capsules. Among the forms, a distinction is made between:
- oily supplements: Drops and also some capsules contain oil, which has the highest bioavailability.
- oil-free supplements: tablets and capsules without oil. These should be taken together with high-fat foods.
The forms of administration each have their advantages and disadvantages. It is important to administer vitamin D to your child in a targeted and simple way, which we will now show you:
What distinguishes vitamin D drops for children?
Vitamin D3 drops are already dissolved in a natural oil and the products contain almost no additives. Compared to tablets and capsules, preparations in liquid form show the highest increase in vitamin D levels at the same dosage (7) When administering vitamin D for children in drop form, however, dosing is more difficult to handle. This is because it can happen that one drop too many is used, which can lead to an overdose in the child. Here, you simply have to look more closely and pay attention when taking the drops.
Drops can be added directly to food or dribbled into the mouth. With drops containing oil, the vitamin D level rises more quickly than with other forms of administration. (9) Different dosage guidelines apply depending on the area of application and age group. For the prevention of vitamin D deficiency, children aged 0-3 years are usually given 1-2 drops per day and children aged 4-18 years 1-3 drops per day. You can get more detailed information from your family doctor. Although the oily vitamin D drops are extremely pure, they have a shorter shelf life than tablets.
What are the characteristics of vitamin D tablets for children?
In the case of capsules and tablets that do not contain oil, it is essential to take them at the same time as a high-fat meal in order to achieve the best possible bioavailability. The form of administration to children via tablets is easier to handle than drops. The administration of vitamin D for children and infants is therefore easier in the form of tablets. However, swallowing tablets is much more difficult for children.
You can try dissolving the tablets in water. As far as oil-free capsules are concerned, you should pay attention to the necessary fillers. In the best case, these are of natural origin and are not suspected of negatively affecting the absorption capacity, such as magnesium stearate. To be sure, it is best to read the manufacturer's instructions on the packaging. In the case of tablets, binding agents that are necessary for shaping could also prove to be disadvantageous.
What are the characteristics of vitamin D capsules for children?
Oil-containing vitamin D3 are soft capsules or softgels filled with the oily, dissolved vitamin D3. Capsules are much easier for children to swallow compared to tablets because they are much smaller and slip down the throat more easily due to their rubbery coating. As already mentioned, there are capsules with oil and without oil. However, as the capsules are often made of trier gelatine, this form of intake is not suitable for vegetarians or vegans. However, it is better to ask at the pharmacy or online, because there are also capsules without animal gelatine. The capsule form of preparation is usually more expensive than tablets, but does not contain any unnecessary additives.
Facts worth knowing about vitamin D for children
How much and for how long should children take vitamin D?
While indirect sunlight is sufficient in tropical areas and babies are often naked, this is not the case in our latitudes. For this reason, infants and young children are given vitamin D by the doctor or midwife. Older children are not recommended any supplements during the summer months. In winter, however, sun exposure is not sufficient, which is why attention should be paid to a vitamin D-rich diet. The following table shows the dosage of vitamin D for the different age groups and the recommended duration of the supplement (19)
|Premature babies||Up to 1000 IU/day to build up the body's stores after consultation with a doctor|
|0 - 1 year||400-500 IU/day or 800 - 1000 IU every 2 days|
|over 2 years||500-600 IU or 1000 IU every 2 days from September to May|
How does vitamin D deficiency manifest itself in children?
In our latitudes, many children and adolescents suffer from vitamin D deficiency, especially in winter. If children are fed a vegan or macrobiotic diet or are overweight, do not spend enough time outdoors, they always wear long clothes or always wear sunscreen, they may have a vitamin D deficiency. Symptomatic signs of vitamin D deficiency in children include: pronounced fatigue, with difficulty walking, extreme thirst, headaches and nervousness. (5) Most of the time, these are children who are in life phases in which they grow very quickly. If you suspect a deficiency, first have a vitamin D test done by a doctor before buying vitamin D supplements. Risks for vitamin D deficiency in children and adolescents can be the following (15)
- Breast milk feeding without vitamin D prophylaxis or by breastfeeding mothers with vitamin D deficiency
- dark skin colour (children from Africa, the Middle East, India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, etc.)
- lack of sunlight exposure (veiling, indoor sports, TV and media - abuse, etc.)
- chronic diseases such as: Malabsorption syndromes (coeliac disease, cystic fibrosis, Crohn's disease), liver and biliary tract diseases, chronic renal insufficiency, diabetes mellitus
- constant use of sunscreens with a high sun protection factor
- Symptoms such as stunted growth, developmental delays (especially in gross motor skills), fatigue, pain or cramps of the legs
- Phases of accelerated growth in childhood or puberty
Babies have an increased risk of vitamin D deficiency and the resulting rickets - on the one hand because breast milk contains only little vitamin D, and on the other hand because the baby's delicate skin should not be exposed to direct sunlight. Scientists discovered that children with asthma had significantly lower vitamin D concentrations and poorer lung function than those with vitamin D concentrations in the normal range. (18) Therefore, the German Society for Paediatrics and Adolescent Medicine recommends that all babies should receive a daily vitamin D tablet from the end of the first week of life until the end of the first year of life to prevent rickets. This recommendation applies to both breastfed and non-breastfed babies. With this table we would like to show you the recommended amount of vitamin D units in order to be able to recognise a deficiency in time and to take action:
|Stage||Therapy (IU)||Therapy (µg)|
|Vitamin D deficiency||400 to 2000 IU per day||10 to 50 µg|
|Vitamin D deficiency diagnosed by a doctor||Up to 10,000 IU per day||(not longer than four weeks) 250 µg|
What are the effects of vitamin D overdose in children?
However, high doses of vitamin D can lead to mineral deficiencies and calcification of organs and vessels, which can promote the development of kidney stones and heart attacks, for example. Vitamin D overdose from food supplements over several months can also lead to elevated calcium levels and complaints such as hypercalcaemia. These include fatigue, exhaustion, bone pain, muscle weakness, severe thirst, nausea, vomiting, stomach pain, difficulty walking, and confusion. (17)
Despite everything, vitamin D poisoning in children is very rare. Adults would have to take about 40,000 IU per day for several months for vitamin D overdose to occur.
Vitamin D overdose is said to occur when levels are between 90 and 150 ng/ml, which is 225 to 374 nmol/l. In comparison to a Toxic Vitamin D level, the values are below 150ng/ml to 374 nmol/l. Acute poisoning occurs when one takes an excessively high dose of vitamin D (as a preparation) in one go. Chronic vitamin D intoxication can develop if you take too much vitamin D over a long period of time. If you have symptoms of this, you should see a doctor immediately. You should also always follow the manufacturer's recommendations. You should always consult your doctor before taking a high dose of vitamin D to avoid a harmful vitamin D overdose in children.
How can you correctly calculate the vitamin D requirement for children?
The basis for calculating the vitamin D requirement in children is the currently measured vitamin D level in the blood (25-OH vitamin D3), which is given either in ng/ml or in nmol/l. There are now home vitamin D tests that you can use to conveniently determine your vitamin D level. Alternatively, you can have a blood test done by your doctor. Unfortunately, hardly anyone knows how to correctly calculate and dose vitamin D and how to take it in the right combination with calcium, magnesium and vitamin K. However, several health portals on the internet offer a calculation of the vitamin D requirement. For the calculation, the following information is usually required from you (16)
- Body weight: enter your current body weight
- Initial value (ng/ml): enter your value as determined by a vitamin D test
- Target value (ng/ml): the value you want to reach after a replenishment phase
- Replenishment time span: Enter the number of days until you want to reach your target value. We recommend a time span of 14-30 days.
Image source: Ð?Ð½Ð°Ñ?Ñ'Ð°Ñ?Ð¸/ 123rf.com
This study suggests that vitamin D(3) supplementation during the winter may reduce the incidence of influenza A, especially in specific subgroups of schoolchildren. Mitsuyoshi Urashima / 2010 May
Dietary vitamin D supplementation is associated with reduced risk of type 1 diabetes. Ensuring adequate vitamin D supplementation for infants could help to reverse the increasing trend in the incidence of type 1 diabetes. E Hyppönen / 2001 Nov
Vitamin D insufficiency is common in the United States; the elderly and African-Americans are at particularly high risk of deficiency. This review, written for a broad scientific readership, presents a critical overview of scientific evidence relevant to a possible causal relationship between vitamin D deficiency and adverse cognitive or behavioral effects. Joyce C McCann / 2008 Apr
Dr. Susanne Aumeier, Kinder- und Jugendärztin am Clementine Kinderhospital, hat schon zahlreiche Kinder mit ausgeprägten Mangelerscheinungen behandelt und steht zu Rede und Antwort zum Thema „Knochengesundheit und Vitamin-D-Mangel“. 19.12.2017
Eine Vitamin D-Überdosierung (Vitamin D-Vergiftung) kann entstehen, wenn man hochdosierte Vitamin-D-Präparate einnimmt. Über die normale Ernährung oder Sonnenlicht dagegen ist ein Überschuss an Vitamin D praktisch nicht möglich. Dr. med. Karlheinz Zeilberger / 3. Oktober 2019
Postpartum high-dose vitamin D3 supplementation (6400 IU/day) or conventional infant vitamin D3 supplementation (400 IU/day) lead to similar vitamin D status of healthy exclusively/fully breastfeeding infants by 7 months of age. Daniel E. Roth/ January 2016
Vitamin D deficiency in children can have adverse health consequences, such as growth failure and rickets. Catherine F Casey / 2010 Mar
Die 78-Jährige erholte sich nach forcierter diuretischer Therapie und peroraler Cortisongabe wieder. Der 60-jährige hat bleibende Schäden davongetragen, nämlich eine dialysepflichtige Niereninsuffizienz. AKDÄ WARNT / 01.12.2017
Oil-emulsified vitamin D3 supplements resulted in a greater mean change in serum 25(OH)D concentration, but fewer patients reaching vitamin D sufficiency, than chewable or encapsulated supplements.Lokahi Health Center (M.L.T.), Kailua Kona / 2014 Aug
n Deutschland greift etwa ein Drittel der Erwachsenen regelmäßig zu Nahrungsergänzungsmitteln (NEM). Neben Vitaminen und Mineralstoffen enthalten die Produkte teilweise auch sonstige Stoffe mit physiologischer Wirkung wie Aminosäuren, Fettsäuren, Pflanzenextrakte oder Mikroorganismen. Anke Weißenborn / 04 January 2018
Forschungsergebnisse der letzten Jahre lieferten Hinweise auf eine Rolle des Vitamin D für die Prävention verschiedener chronischer Krankheiten. Eine Arbeitsgruppe der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Ernährung e. V. (DGE) hat die wissenschaftliche Datenlage hierzu bewertet. Deutsche Gesellschaft für Ernährung / 01/2012
Vitamin D fördert die Aufnahme von Calcium aus dem Magen-Darm-Trakt sowie die Härtung des Knochens. Es hat Einfluss auf die Muskelkraft, reguliert den Calcium- und Phosphatstoffwechsel und ist auch an weiteren Stoffwechselvorgängen im Körper beteiligt. Deutschen Gesellschaft für Ernährung e. V. (DGE) und des Max Rubner-Instituts (MRI) vom 03. Dezember 2014
The estimated prevalence of US children with a parent-reported ASD diagnosis is now 1 in 40, with rates of ASD-specific treatment usage varying by children's sociodemographic and co-occurring conditions. Michael D Kogan / 2018 Dec
Vitamin D ist nicht nur für die kindlichen Knochen wichtig, in fast allen anderen Geweben und Organen - bis hin zum Gehirn - sitzen ebenfalls Vitamin-D-Rezeptoren. Mini Med Studium / Mag. Silvia Feffer-Holik / 16.05.2019
In der Schweiz werden erniedrigte Vitamin-D-Spiegel bei 20 bis 60 Prozent der Kinder
und Jugendlichen gefunden. Die zurzeit empfohlene Prophylaxe mit 400 IU Vitamin D bis zum Ende des ersten Lebensjahres wird nur bei 64 Prozent aller Kinder durchgeführt. Von Dagmar l'Allemand1, Marco Janner2, Thomas Neuhaus3 und Josef Laimbacher1
Der Bedarf jedes Menschen an Vitamin D ist sehr individuell und abghängig von Faktoren wie dem aktuellen Vitamin D Spiegel im Blut, dem Wert welcher durch eine Vitamin D Zufuhr erreicht werden soll (Zielwert), dem Körpergewicht und dem aktuellen Gesundheitszustand sowie dem Lebensstil.
Pediatric cases of vitamin D intoxication (VDI) with dietary supplements have not been previously reported. Cengiz Kara / 2014 Jan
Several clinical trials of vitamin D to prevent asthma exacerbation and improve asthma control have been conducted in children and adults, but a meta‐analysis restricted to double‐blind, randomised, placebo‐controlled trials of this intervention is lacking. Adrian R Martineau / 05 September 2016