Last updated: August 23, 2021

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A vitamin D deficiency has serious consequences - yet it is widespread in Germany. In winter, it is simply not possible to absorb enough sunlight and prevent a deficiency, and even in summer, a deficiency can quickly develop. This is why many people benefit from taking vitamin D oil supplements.

In our vitamin D oil test 2021 you will learn everything you need to know about the influence of vitamin D in the body, what the consequences of a deficiency are and what you need to bear in mind when taking vitamin D supplements. In addition, we show you which purchase criteria you must pay attention to in order to find the right vitamin D oil for you.




Summary

  • Vitamin D has an influence on almost the entire human body. A deficiency can affect the bones, nerves, immune system and cardiovascular system, among other things.
  • Most Germans have a vitamin D deficiency during the winter months. But deficiencies can also occur in summer. Therefore, vitamin D oil preparations are the easiest way to prevent a deficiency or to compensate for it.
  • Especially for newborns, it is very important to prevent serious damage by taking vitamin D supplements.

The Best Vitamin D Oil: Our Picks

Guide: Questions you should ask yourself before buying vitamin D oil

In order to inform you comprehensively about the effectiveness of vitamin D oil and to give you an understanding of the current state of science, we have summarised all the important information in the following sections.

What is vitamin D oil?

Vitamin D oil is a food supplement in drop form. It contains vitamin D, which is also called the "sun vitamin" because it is normally produced by the body itself through skin contact with the sun's rays.(1)

However, many population groups now have a vitamin D deficiency, so taking a supplement is unavoidable. People who spend the entire working day indoors are particularly susceptible.(2, 3)

In addition, due to Germany's geographical location, the sun's rays are not strong enough during the winter months for the body to produce a sufficient amount of vitamin D itself.(4)

How does vitamin D oil work?

Most vitamin D oil preparations on the German and European market consist of the active ingredient vitamin D3. Originally, vitamin D3 was obtained from animal products, while vitamin D2 is obtained from plant products. In the meantime, however, there is also vegan vitamin D3 from plants.

The vitamin D produced by the body is vitamin D3, while vitamin D2 is an artificial product. While vitamin D2 and vitamin D3 were still considered equivalent in some countries, vitamin D3 is now considered to be more effective.(5)

The exact areas of effect of vitamin D are still not fully researched. However, current medical research shows that vitamin D influences the entire human body and even takes on hormonal functions.(6)

However, it has been proven that vitamin D has an influence on the following areas of the human body(7):

  • Cardiovascular system
  • Immune system
  • Mineral balance
  • Brain
  • Nerves
  • Cells
  • Calcium level
  • Bone formation

When and for whom is vitamin D oil useful?

As already mentioned, solar radiation in Germany is not high enough over the winter months to ensure a sufficient supply of vitamin D. Therefore, taking vitamin D during the winter months makes sense for everyone.(4)

Vitamin D Öl-1

Vitamin D is also commonly known as the "sun vitamin". It can only be obtained in sufficient quantities through sunlight and not through food.
(Image source: unsplash.com / Alexander Shustov)

Even those who spend all day in the office or in dark rooms without contact with the sun benefit from an additional intake of vitamin D oil. (2, 3) In addition, seniors often have too low a vitamin D level and should supplement.(8)

Vitamin D oil is also useful for pregnant women and breastfeeding mothers.

Taking a supplement ensures an optimal vitamin D supply for the foetus. Through breastfeeding, vitamin D is passed on to the infant, so that a deficiency can be counteracted.(9, 10)

Due to the important functions of vitamin D in the human body, taking vitamin D oil is also very important for newborns and infants. The intake prevents the development of rickets, metabolic disorders and bone malformations.(11)

Taking vitamin D oil is also necessary for a variety of diseases. For example, overweight people have a higher need for vitamin D.(12) This is also the case with a whole range of diseases in the gastrointestinal tract, such as Crohn's disease, cystic fibrosis, pancreatitis or coeliac disease.(13, 14)

How can I measure the vitamin D level in my blood?

Your family doctor can determine the vitamin D level in your blood with a blood test. However, your health insurance will only pay for this if you either have severe symptoms that indicate a vitamin D deficiency or the deficiency is detected in the course of another examination.

If you want to have your vitamin D level determined, you usually have to pay for the test yourself. The costs for this usually vary from practice to practice, but you should calculate about 20 euros for the test.

How can I recognise a vitamin D deficiency and what are the consequences?

When it comes to the consequences of a vitamin D deficiency, a distinction must be made between a mild deficiency and a severe deficiency that has not been treated for a long time.

The first symptoms of a mild vitamin D deficiency can be(15, 16):

  • Headache
  • Dizzy feeling
  • Constant tiredness and listlessness
  • Difficulty concentrating or performing

However, these symptoms, if left untreated, can lead to more severe symptoms, which include:(17, 18)

  • Higher susceptibility to infections
  • Rickets
  • Osteoporosis
  • Osteomalcia
  • Muscle weakness
  • Problems in the cardiovascular system
  • Favouring depression

What are the possible side effects of taking vitamin D oil?

When taken according to the dosage instructions, no side effects occur when taking vitamin D oil.

This only happens if you take a greatly increased dose over a longer period of time. But don't worry, this cannot happen to you unintentionally, because the dangerous dose of 40,000 I.U. is about four to eight times higher than the recommended dose.(19)

Symptoms of an overdose can include the following:

  • Loss of appetite
  • increased thirst
  • Constipation
  • Muscle and joint pain

It only becomes serious if you maintain this overdose for several months. Since vitamin D and calcium interact, an excessive intake of vitamin D also results in an increased amount of calcium in the blood.(20)

Because of this, hypercalcaemia or hypercalcuria can occur. This leads to calcification of vessels, which in turn can promote heart attacks and kidney stones, among other things.(21)

What should be considered when taking vitamin D oil in children and newborns?

If you want to follow medical advice and give your baby vitamin D oil, you should pay close attention to the ingredients when choosing a product. Especially for newborns, it is important that the product does not contain a large number of additives. However, there are also vitamin D oil preparations especially for children that are already optimally adapted to the needs of babies and children.

By the way, you can get a prescription from your paediatrician for the vitamin D supplement for your newborn. The health insurance will then cover all costs.

Vitamin D Öl-2

For babies, a vitamin D deficiency has fatal health consequences. That is why most midwives and paediatricians now recommend that newborns take vitamin D supplements.
(Image source: unsplash.com / Joshua Rodriguez)

How much does vitamin D oil cost?

In our research, we found that the prices for vitamin D oil can vary greatly depending on the type of product.

When buying, however, you should never be tempted by the actual purchase price alone, but always take a look at the price per 100 ml. Supposedly cheap products often simply have less content, so that in the end they are not cheaper or even much more expensive.

The cheapest option is pure vitamin D oil.

You can expect to pay between 20 and 95 euros per 100 ml for pure vitamin D oil. However, most preparations tend to be between about 20 and 50 pounds per 100 ml.

This sounds very expensive, but it actually means that you can get most preparations for around 10 to 25 pounds.

If you want an oil that is a mixture of vitamin D and K2, you will usually pay a little more than for a pure vitamin D oil. The price range is around 30 to 90 pounds per 100 ml, with most preparations being on the higher end of the price range.

The most expensive option is a vegan vitamin D oil. The reason for this is probably that the plant-based ingredients are more expensive than the animal-based ones. The price range for vegan preparations is around 50 to 120 pounds per 100 ml.

Type of supplement price per 100 ml
Pure vitamin D oil approx. 20 - 95 GBP
Vitamin D and K2 oil approx. 30 - 90 GBP
Vegan vitamin D oil approx. 50 - 120 GBP

What are the alternatives to vitamin D oil?

If you don't like taking vitamin D drops, there are other vitamin D supplements you can take. You have the choice between the following alternatives:

  • Tablets
  • Capsules

However, you should note that drops have the advantage that they are more flexible in terms of dosage. In addition, the combination of vitamin D with the oil in the drops ensures optimal absorption of the vitamin.(22, 23)

Decision: What types of vitamin D oil are there and which is the right one for you?

There are two different types of vitamin D oil, depending on the composition of the active ingredients. One is pure vitamin D oil, the other is vitamin D oil to which the active ingredient K2 is added.

In the following we would like to give you an overview of the advantages and disadvantages of both options.

What are the advantages and disadvantages of pure vitamin D oil?

Vitamin D oil has several advantages compared to the alternatives capsules and tablets. For one thing, drops are much easier to dose. You can adjust the amount you take according to your individual needs.

They are also easier to take, which is especially good for children or people who have trouble swallowing. Furthermore, drops have the least amount of additives.

The biggest advantage is the ideal effectiveness. Since vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin, you should always take it together with oil to ensure ideal utilisation in the body. This is already given to you by the vitamin D oil.(13)

However, in order to be able to optimally utilise calcium, your body needs not only vitamin D, but also vitamin K. If you take pure vitamin D oil, you must supplement vitamin K in another way.(24)

The disadvantages of vitamin D oil are that it has a shorter shelf life than tablets or capsules. In addition, tablets and capsules are usually much cheaper than drops.

Advantages
  • Ideal utilisation in the body
  • Individual dosage
  • Lower amount of additives
Disadvantages
  • Shorter shelf life
  • Higher price
  • Vitamin K must be taken additionally

What are the advantages and disadvantages of vitamin D oil with K2?

Vitamin D oil with added K2 has broadly the same advantages and disadvantages as pure vitamin D oil.

You can also dose vitamin D with K2 drops individually, have fewer additives and thanks to the oil, this type of vitamin D preparation is also ideally utilised by the body. Furthermore, you also have the disadvantage of a shorter shelf life and a higher price.

The only significant difference is that with this type of preparation you already have vitamin K2 mixed in and do not have to take it separately.

A disadvantage of this variant is, of course, that you cannot change the existing mixing ratio. So if your body needs more vitamin K2 than is in the mixed preparation, you still have to take another preparation to cover your needs.

Advantages
  • K2 no longer needs to be taken separately (in most cases)
  • Ideal utilisation in the body
  • Individual dosage
  • Lower amount of additives
Disadvantages
  • Shorter shelf life
  • Higher price
  • Dependence on the mixing ratio between vitamin D and K2

Buying criteria: These are the factors you can use to compare and evaluate vitamin D oil

In the following we will show you which factors you can use to compare the different vitamin D oil preparations so that you can decide for yourself which product is right for you.

The criteria you can use to compare vitamin D oils include:

In the following paragraphs we will explain what is important in each of the criteria.

Active ingredient

As we have already explained, with vitamin D oil preparations you always have the choice between pure vitamin D and a mixture of vitamin D and vitamin K2.

We have already listed the advantages and disadvantages of both active ingredients above. In the end, you have to decide which is the better option for you. However, if you do not want to take any additional vitamin K, we recommend that you take a preparation that already combines both active ingredients.

You can find more information about vitamin K in this video:

Dosage

Vitamin D oil preparations are available in different dosages. The most common dosages are 1000, 2000 and 5000 I.U. per drop. Occasionally you can also find preparations with a lower dosage of 500 or 800 I.U., or with a higher dosage of 10,000 I.U. Products especially for babies usually have a dosage of 400 I.U.

In general, if you are not sure about the dosage, you should choose a lower dosage. If you need a higher dose, you can simply take a larger amount of drops

With a high dosage, on the other hand, it is much more difficult or impossible to reduce it.

Amount of content

Because vitamin D oil has a shorter shelf life than, for example, tablets, you should carefully consider the amount of vitamin D you want to take. You can usually get vitamin D oil drops in either 20, 30 or 50 ml vials.

If you simply buy the largest bottle, the oil may expire before you use it up. If you share the preparation with your partner or family, you can go for the larger bottle.

You should also keep a close eye on the price. Many supposedly inexpensive preparations simply have a smaller content and are even more expensive when extrapolated.

Some manufacturers label large bottles as "family packs" or tell you how many portions are in the bottle. This way you can decide whether the amount of ingredients is right for you.

Additives

You should generally avoid additives in food supplements. Especially if children or allergy sufferers take the preparations, you should keep a close eye on the additives.

Additives that you should avoid are:

  • Colourings and preservatives
  • Artificial flavours
  • Sugar
  • Releasing agents such as magnesium stearate

If you are vegetarian, vegan or allergic, you should pay attention to the following ingredients:

  • Lactose
  • Gluten
  • Gelatine
  • other substances of animal origin

However, most manufacturers now state very precisely whether their product is suitable for vegetarians, vegans or allergy sufferers.

Facts worth knowing about vitamin D oil

How much, when and for how long do I take vitamin D oil?

How much and for how long you take vitamin D oil depends on your blood values. If you have a severe deficiency, your doctor will first prescribe a high-dose preparation to compensate for your deficiency.

If you do not get enough sunlight or belong to a risk group and want to prevent a deficiency, you can use the vitamin D values of the German Nutrition Society and the Federal Food Safety and Veterinary Office as a guide(25, 26):

Age Daily dose of vitamin D
Infants (up to 12 months) 400 - 1000 I.U.
Children (from 1 year) 800 - 2500 I.U.
Adolescents and adults 800 - 4000 I.U.
Seniors (from 65 years) 800 - 4000 I.U.
Pregnant and breastfeeding women 800 - 4000 I.U.

The lower value is the minimum intake to prevent an acute deficiency, the higher value is the safe upper intake. For some time now, there has been a dispute among physicians as to whether the recommended vitamin D levels are not much too low and need to be massively corrected upwards.(27, 28)

If you are not sure what dose you should ultimately take, you can ask your doctor or use a vitamin D calculator on the internet.

What is the shelf life of vitamin D oil supplements?

Most vitamin D oil supplements have a shelf life of 6 to 12 months after opening. In general, you should follow the manufacturer's instructions, because even if a product has not gone bad after this period, the effect may be reduced. This means that you can no longer be sure that you are taking the right dose.

What is the best way to store vitamin D oil supplements?

Once you have opened a bottle of vitamin D oil, you do not necessarily have to store it in the refrigerator. However, you should not expose it to high temperatures.

Vitamin D Öl-4

Only a blood test can provide reliable information about your vitamin D status. Therefore, you should always consult a doctor before taking supplements.
(Image source: pexels.com / Bongkarn Thanyakij)

Most manufacturers recommend storing the supplement in a cool place, i.e. at a temperature between 6 and 25 degrees. You should also make sure that the vitamin D oil is stored away from light and is not exposed to direct sunlight.

If you have children, you should also bear in mind that vitamin D oil is a medicinal product and should therefore be kept out of the reach of children.

In which foods does vitamin D occur naturally?

You should be aware that you can only get a small amount of your daily vitamin D from food. However, you can still consume foods that contain vitamin D for support. Foods with vitamin D include(29):

Foods (per 100 g) Vitamin D content in µg
Herring 25.00
Salmon 16.00
Egg yolk 5.60
Avocado 3.40
Chanterelles 2.10
Mushrooms 1.90
Butter 1.20

Picture source: McAdam/ 123rf.com

References (29)

1. Der Zusammenhang zwischen Vitamin D, Mangel an Sonnenlicht, dem Ausbruch der Krankheit Rachitis und der Behandlung durch Lebertran in historischer Perspektive.
Source

2. The results of this study showed that in French normal adults living in an urban environment with a lack of direct exposure to sunshine, diet failed to provide an adequate amount of vitamin D. It is important to pay attention to this rather high prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency in the general adult population and to discuss the clinical utility of winter supplementation with low doses of vitamin D.
Source

3. The aim of the present study is to summarize existing literature on vitamin D levels in adults in different continents and different countries worldwide. The best determinant of vitamin D status is the serum concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D). Most investigators agree that serum 25(OH)D should be higher than 50 nmol/l, but some recommend higher serum levels. Traditional risk groups for vitamin D deficiency include pregnant women, children, older persons, the institutionalized, and non-western immigrants. This chapter shows that serum 25(OH)D levels are not only suboptimal in specific risk groups, but also in adults in many countries. Especially, in the Middle-East and Asia, vitamin D deficiency in adults is highly prevalent.
Source

4. Sunlight has long been recognized as a major provider of vitamin D for humans; radiation in the UVB (290-315 nm) portion of the solar spectrum photolyzes 7-dehydrocholesterol in the skin to previtamin D3, which, in turn, is converted by a thermal process to vitamin D3. Latitude and season affect both the quantity and quality of solar radiation reaching the earth's surface, especially in the UVB region of the spectrum, but little is known about how these influence the ability of sunlight to synthesize vitamin D3 in skin.
Source

5. This meta-analysis indicates that vitamin D3 is more efficacious at raising serum 25(OH)D concentrations than is vitamin D2, and thus vitamin D3) could potentially become the preferred choice for supplementation. However, additional research is required to examine the metabolic pathways involved in oral and intramuscular administration of vitamin D and the effects across age, sex, and ethnicity, which this review was unable to verify.
Source

6. This overview provides a brief description of the physiologic, endocrinologic, and molecular biologic characteristics of vitamin D. It also provides information on new selective analogs of 1alpha,25-dihydroyvitamin D3 for therapy.
Source

7. It is becoming increasingly clear that vitamin D has a broad range of actions in the human body. Besides its well-known effects on calcium/phosphate homeostasis, vitamin D influences muscle function, cardiovascular homeostasis, nervous function, and the immune response. Vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency has been associated with muscle weakness and a high incidence of various chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, cancer, multiple sclerosis, and type 1 and 2 diabetes. Most importantly, low vitamin D status has been found to be an independent predictor of all-cause mortality. Several recent randomized controlled trials support the assumption that vitamin D can improve muscle strength, glucose homeostasis, and cardiovascular risk markers. In addition, vitamin D may reduce cancer incidence and elevated blood pressure.
Source

8. Die D-A-CH-Referenzwerte für die Nährstoffzufuhr sind die Basis für die praktische Umsetzung einer vollwertigen Ernährung. Sie benennen Mengen für die tägliche Zufuhr von Energie und Nährstoffen. Die Umsetzung der Referenzwerte trägt dazu bei, Wachstum, Entwicklung und Leistungsfähigkeit sowie die Gesundheit des Menschen ein Leben lang zu fördern bzw. zu erhalten.
Source

9. Routine vitamin D supplementation (400 IU/day) of breastfed infants has been recommended in North America for >50 years.1 Historically, the practice was advocated to prevent rickets; recently, there has been greater emphasis on its role in maintaining serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations (25(OH)D) above conventional thresholds of sufficiency (eg, 50 nmol/L).2 Yet, some breastfeeding advocates have argued that this policy conflicts with the message that mother's milk is a complete source of nutrient requirements in the first 6 months of life.
Source

10. Compare effectiveness of maternal vitamin D3 supplementation with 6400 IU per day alone to maternal and infant supplementation with 400 IU per day.
Source

11. Because there are limited natural dietary sources of vitamin D and adequate sunshine exposure for the cutaneous synthesis of vitamin D is not easily determined for a given individual and may increase the risk of skin cancer, the recommendations to ensure adequate vitamin D status have been revised to include all infants, including those who are exclusively breastfed and older children and adolescents. It is now recommended that all infants and children, including adolescents, have a minimum daily intake of 400 IU of vitamin D beginning soon after birth.
Source

12. Obesity-associated vitamin D insufficiency is likely due to the decreased bioavailability of vitamin D(3) from cutaneous and dietary sources because of its deposition in body fat compartments.
Source

13. These findings suggest that an oral vitamin D absorption test may be of value for determination of patients at risk for development of vitamin D deficiency. They also raise questions about the efficacy of oral vitamin D preparations in patients with intestinal fat malabsorption.
Source

14. These data indicate that vitamin D malabsorption reflects the extent of distal small-bowel resection in Crohn's disease. Treatment with oral cholecalciferol is sufficient in those with small or moderate resections but oral 25-hydroxycholecalciferol supplementation may be preferred in those with a severe short-bowel syndrome.
Source

15. Inadequate vitamin D status is a worldwide problem. Evidence is accumulating that individuals with low vitamin D status have excess mortality rates. We calculated to which extent annual mortality rates can be reduced in the German population by optimizing vitamin D status.
Source

16. A large number of observational studies have reported harmful effects of low 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels on non-skeletal outcomes. We performed a systematic quantitative review on characteristics of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) included in meta-analyses (MAs) on non-skeletal effects of vitamin D supplementation.
Source

17. Recent data are now available to implicate autocrine/paracrine activities in each of the major bone cell types where it also regulates cell proliferation and differentiation. In rodent models, adequate levels of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D have been found to be critical to optimise bone health and to protect against osteoporosis.
Source

18. Vitamin D receptors have been mapped throughout the brain suggesting a role for vitamin D in psychosomatic disorders. Results from previous epidemiological studies on relation between vitamin D status and depression are equivocal. Also, limited information is available relating vitamin D status with depression in young adult US population.
Source

19. For adults, the 5-microg (200 IU) vitamin D recommended dietary allowance may prevent osteomalacia in the absence of sunlight, but more is needed to help prevent osteoporosis and secondary hyperparathyroidism. Other benefits of vitamin D supplementation are implicated epidemiologically: prevention of some cancers, osteoarthritis progression, multiple sclerosis, and hypertension. Total-body sun exposure easily provides the equivalent of 250 microg (10000 IU) vitamin D/d, suggesting that this is a physiologic limit.
Source

20. Die Hyperkalzurie ist ein bedeutender Faktor bei der Entstehung der Urolithiasis. Hierbei handelt es sich jedoch nicht um ein einheitliches Krankheitsbild, vielmehr können ihr verschiedene Stoffwechselstörungen zugrunde liegen.
Source

21. The effect of magnesium deficiency on vitamin D metabolism was assessed in 23 hypocalcemic magnesium-deficient patients by measuring the serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25-(OH)2D] before, during, and after 5-13 days of parenteral magnesium therapy.
Source

22. Oil-emulsified vitamin D3 supplements resulted in a greater mean change in serum 25(OH)D concentration, but fewer patients reaching vitamin D sufficiency, than chewable or encapsulated supplements.
Source

23. Vitamin D insufficiency is a common medical condition. Vitamin supplements can be ingested to improve vitamin D status. It is not known if the vehicle substance that is combined with the vitamin D tablet influences the bioavailability of vitamin D.
Source

24. This paper will review the process of vascular calcification and delineate the role that vitamin K2 plays in the modulation of that process, through the activation of VKDPs. One such VKDP is Matrix Gla Protein (MGP), which when activated inhibits osteogenic factors, thereby inhibiting vascular and soft tissue calcification.
Source

25. Schätzwerte für eine angemessene Vitamin-D-Zufuhr bei fehlender endogener Synthese.
Source

26. Vitamin D Fachinformationen des Bundesamts für Lebensmittelsicherheit und Veterinärwesen
Source

27. The IOM recommendations for vitamin D fail in a major way on logic, on science, and on effective public health guidance. Moreover, by failing to use a physiological referent, the IOM approach constitutes precisely the wrong model for development of nutritional policy.
Source

28. Inappropriately low UL values, or guidance values, for vitamin D have hindered objective clinical research on vitamin D nutrition, they have hindered our understanding of its role in disease prevention, and restricted the amount of vitamin D in multivitamins and foods to doses too low to benefit public health.
Source

29. Ausgewählte Fragen und Antworten zu Vitamin D Gemeinsame FAQ des BfR, der DGE und des MRI vom 22. Oktober 2012
Source

Why you can trust me?

Vitamin D, Cod-Liver Oil, Sunlight, and Rickets: A Historical Perspective
Der Zusammenhang zwischen Vitamin D, Mangel an Sonnenlicht, dem Ausbruch der Krankheit Rachitis und der Behandlung durch Lebertran in historischer Perspektive.
Go to source
Prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency in an adult normal population.
The results of this study showed that in French normal adults living in an urban environment with a lack of direct exposure to sunshine, diet failed to provide an adequate amount of vitamin D. It is important to pay attention to this rather high prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency in the general adult population and to discuss the clinical utility of winter supplementation with low doses of vitamin D.
Go to source
Worldwide vitamin D status
The aim of the present study is to summarize existing literature on vitamin D levels in adults in different continents and different countries worldwide. The best determinant of vitamin D status is the serum concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D). Most investigators agree that serum 25(OH)D should be higher than 50 nmol/l, but some recommend higher serum levels. Traditional risk groups for vitamin D deficiency include pregnant women, children, older persons, the institutionalized, and non-western immigrants. This chapter shows that serum 25(OH)D levels are not only suboptimal in specific risk groups, but also in adults in many countries. Especially, in the Middle-East and Asia, vitamin D deficiency in adults is highly prevalent.
Go to source
Influence of season and latitude on the cutaneous synthesis of vitamin D3
Sunlight has long been recognized as a major provider of vitamin D for humans; radiation in the UVB (290-315 nm) portion of the solar spectrum photolyzes 7-dehydrocholesterol in the skin to previtamin D3, which, in turn, is converted by a thermal process to vitamin D3. Latitude and season affect both the quantity and quality of solar radiation reaching the earth's surface, especially in the UVB region of the spectrum, but little is known about how these influence the ability of sunlight to synthesize vitamin D3 in skin.
Go to source
Comparison of vitamin D2 and vitamin D3 supplementation in raising serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D status
This meta-analysis indicates that vitamin D3 is more efficacious at raising serum 25(OH)D concentrations than is vitamin D2, and thus vitamin D3) could potentially become the preferred choice for supplementation. However, additional research is required to examine the metabolic pathways involved in oral and intramuscular administration of vitamin D and the effects across age, sex, and ethnicity, which this review was unable to verify.
Go to source
Overview of general physiologic features and functions of vitamin D
This overview provides a brief description of the physiologic, endocrinologic, and molecular biologic characteristics of vitamin D. It also provides information on new selective analogs of 1alpha,25-dihydroyvitamin D3 for therapy.
Go to source
Nonclassical vitamin D action
It is becoming increasingly clear that vitamin D has a broad range of actions in the human body. Besides its well-known effects on calcium/phosphate homeostasis, vitamin D influences muscle function, cardiovascular homeostasis, nervous function, and the immune response. Vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency has been associated with muscle weakness and a high incidence of various chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, cancer, multiple sclerosis, and type 1 and 2 diabetes. Most importantly, low vitamin D status has been found to be an independent predictor of all-cause mortality. Several recent randomized controlled trials support the assumption that vitamin D can improve muscle strength, glucose homeostasis, and cardiovascular risk markers. In addition, vitamin D may reduce cancer incidence and elevated blood pressure.
Go to source
Referenzwerte für die Nährstoffzufuhr
Die D-A-CH-Referenzwerte für die Nährstoffzufuhr sind die Basis für die praktische Umsetzung einer vollwertigen Ernährung. Sie benennen Mengen für die tägliche Zufuhr von Energie und Nährstoffen. Die Umsetzung der Referenzwerte trägt dazu bei, Wachstum, Entwicklung und Leistungsfähigkeit sowie die Gesundheit des Menschen ein Leben lang zu fördern bzw. zu erhalten.
Go to source
Maternal postpartum high-dose vitamin D3 supplementation (6400 IU/day) or conventional infant vitamin D3 supplementation (400 IU/day) lead to similar vitamin D status of healthy exclusively/fully breastfeeding infants by 7 months of age
Routine vitamin D supplementation (400 IU/day) of breastfed infants has been recommended in North America for >50 years.1 Historically, the practice was advocated to prevent rickets; recently, there has been greater emphasis on its role in maintaining serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations (25(OH)D) above conventional thresholds of sufficiency (eg, 50 nmol/L).2 Yet, some breastfeeding advocates have argued that this policy conflicts with the message that mother's milk is a complete source of nutrient requirements in the first 6 months of life.
Go to source
Maternal Versus Infant Vitamin D Supplementation During Lactation: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Compare effectiveness of maternal vitamin D3 supplementation with 6400 IU per day alone to maternal and infant supplementation with 400 IU per day.
Go to source
Prevention of rickets and vitamin D deficiency in infants, children, and adolescents.
Because there are limited natural dietary sources of vitamin D and adequate sunshine exposure for the cutaneous synthesis of vitamin D is not easily determined for a given individual and may increase the risk of skin cancer, the recommendations to ensure adequate vitamin D status have been revised to include all infants, including those who are exclusively breastfed and older children and adolescents. It is now recommended that all infants and children, including adolescents, have a minimum daily intake of 400 IU of vitamin D beginning soon after birth.
Go to source
Decreased bioavailability of vitamin D in obesity.
Obesity-associated vitamin D insufficiency is likely due to the decreased bioavailability of vitamin D(3) from cutaneous and dietary sources because of its deposition in body fat compartments.
Go to source
Vitamin D absorption in healthy subjects and in patients with intestinal malabsorption syndromes.
These findings suggest that an oral vitamin D absorption test may be of value for determination of patients at risk for development of vitamin D deficiency. They also raise questions about the efficacy of oral vitamin D preparations in patients with intestinal fat malabsorption.
Go to source
Intestinal absorption of cholecalciferol and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol in patients with both Crohn's disease and intestinal resection.
These data indicate that vitamin D malabsorption reflects the extent of distal small-bowel resection in Crohn's disease. Treatment with oral cholecalciferol is sufficient in those with small or moderate resections but oral 25-hydroxycholecalciferol supplementation may be preferred in those with a severe short-bowel syndrome.
Go to source
An estimate of the survival benefit of improving vitamin D status in the adult german population
Inadequate vitamin D status is a worldwide problem. Evidence is accumulating that individuals with low vitamin D status have excess mortality rates. We calculated to which extent annual mortality rates can be reduced in the German population by optimizing vitamin D status.
Go to source
Non-skeletal health effects of vitamin D supplementation: A systematic review on findings from meta-analyses summarizing trial data
A large number of observational studies have reported harmful effects of low 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels on non-skeletal outcomes. We performed a systematic quantitative review on characteristics of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) included in meta-analyses (MAs) on non-skeletal effects of vitamin D supplementation.
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Autocrine and Paracrine Actions of Vitamin D
Recent data are now available to implicate autocrine/paracrine activities in each of the major bone cell types where it also regulates cell proliferation and differentiation. In rodent models, adequate levels of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D have been found to be critical to optimise bone health and to protect against osteoporosis.
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Serum vitamin D concentrations are related to depression in young adult US population: the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
Vitamin D receptors have been mapped throughout the brain suggesting a role for vitamin D in psychosomatic disorders. Results from previous epidemiological studies on relation between vitamin D status and depression are equivocal. Also, limited information is available relating vitamin D status with depression in young adult US population.
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Vitamin D supplementation, 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations, and safety.
For adults, the 5-microg (200 IU) vitamin D recommended dietary allowance may prevent osteomalacia in the absence of sunlight, but more is needed to help prevent osteoporosis and secondary hyperparathyroidism. Other benefits of vitamin D supplementation are implicated epidemiologically: prevention of some cancers, osteoarthritis progression, multiple sclerosis, and hypertension. Total-body sun exposure easily provides the equivalent of 250 microg (10000 IU) vitamin D/d, suggesting that this is a physiologic limit.
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Hyperkalzurie und Vitamin-D-Stoffwechsel
Die Hyperkalzurie ist ein bedeutender Faktor bei der Entstehung der Urolithiasis. Hierbei handelt es sich jedoch nicht um ein einheitliches Krankheitsbild, vielmehr können ihr verschiedene Stoffwechselstörungen zugrunde liegen.
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Low serum concentrations of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D in human magnesium deficiency.
The effect of magnesium deficiency on vitamin D metabolism was assessed in 23 hypocalcemic magnesium-deficient patients by measuring the serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25-(OH)2D] before, during, and after 5-13 days of parenteral magnesium therapy.
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Impact of Vitamin D3 Dietary Supplement Matrix on Clinical Response
Oil-emulsified vitamin D3 supplements resulted in a greater mean change in serum 25(OH)D concentration, but fewer patients reaching vitamin D sufficiency, than chewable or encapsulated supplements.
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Evaluation of vehicle substances on vitamin D bioavailability: a systematic review.
Vitamin D insufficiency is a common medical condition. Vitamin supplements can be ingested to improve vitamin D status. It is not known if the vehicle substance that is combined with the vitamin D tablet influences the bioavailability of vitamin D.
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Vitamin k dependent proteins and the role of vitamin k2 in the modulation of vascular calcification: a review.
This paper will review the process of vascular calcification and delineate the role that vitamin K2 plays in the modulation of that process, through the activation of VKDPs. One such VKDP is Matrix Gla Protein (MGP), which when activated inhibits osteogenic factors, thereby inhibiting vascular and soft tissue calcification.
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Deutsche Gesellschaft für Ernährung - Vitamin D Empfehlung
Schätzwerte für eine angemessene Vitamin-D-Zufuhr bei fehlender endogener Synthese.
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Bundesamt für Lebensmittelsicherheit und Veterinärwesen
Vitamin D Fachinformationen des Bundesamts für Lebensmittelsicherheit und Veterinärwesen
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Why the IOM recommendations for vitamin D are deficient.
The IOM recommendations for vitamin D fail in a major way on logic, on science, and on effective public health guidance. Moreover, by failing to use a physiological referent, the IOM approach constitutes precisely the wrong model for development of nutritional policy.
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Critique of the considerations for establishing the tolerable upper intake level for vitamin D: critical need for revision upwards.
Inappropriately low UL values, or guidance values, for vitamin D have hindered objective clinical research on vitamin D nutrition, they have hindered our understanding of its role in disease prevention, and restricted the amount of vitamin D in multivitamins and foods to doses too low to benefit public health.
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Deutsche Gesellschaft für Ernährung
Ausgewählte Fragen und Antworten zu Vitamin D Gemeinsame FAQ des BfR, der DGE und des MRI vom 22. Oktober 2012
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Reviews