Last updated: August 15, 2021

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In today's busy lifestyles, taking vitamins, whether from natural sources such as different types of food or in the form of supplements, is extremely important for strengthening our immune system and keeping our bodies vital. Vitamin E is one of the most important antioxidants and plays a central role in protecting our cells from free radicals caused by harmful environmental influences such as UV radiation. Numerous studies have demonstrated the positive effects of vitamin E on a number of diseases and skin-specific problems. Vitamin E is most commonly available as a synthetic or natural food supplement in the form of capsules.

In our vitamin E capsules review 2021 we provide you with all the important information you need to know before buying vitamin E capsules. Please read carefully what is written below to know why taking vitamin E supplements is so important for your health.




The most important facts

  • As one of the most important antioxidants and radical scavengers, vitamin E is of particular importance for our health and vitality of the body.
  • Due to its oxidising, immune-stimulating and anti-inflammatory properties, vitamin E is used as a preventive agent against many diseases.
  • Vitamin E can additionally be taken as a food supplement in the form of capsules. A variety of vitamin E capsules are available on the market. They are natural, synthetic, vegan and hypoallergenic.

The Best Vitamin E Capsules: Our Picks

Guide: Questions you should ask yourself before buying vitamin E capsules

Below you will learn about the importance and effects of regular vitamin E intake on the body, which natural foods contain vitamin E, as well as when and for whom vitamin E intake is strongly recommended.

What is vitamin E and why is it important for the body?

Vitamin E is a generic term for at least seven fat-soluble and complex substances known in pharmacy and medicine as tocopherols. For this reason, people often talk about the so-called vitamin E complex. In 1936, vitamin E was isolated from the other substances and given the name alpha-tocopherol. Compared to the other beta-, gamma- and delta-tocopherols, alpha-tocopherol is characterised by the highest biological activity (1).

Vitamin E Kapseln-1

As a radical scavenger, vitamin E protects our body from oxidative stress
(Image source: unsplash.com/Michelle Blackwell)

Vitamin E plays an essential role in the proper functioning of the organism and is central to the health and vitality of the human body. Vitamin E is one of the most important antioxidants that protect cells from free radicals. It is not only an extremely important radical scavenger, but also a substance with anti-inflammatory effects. Regular and long-term intake of vitamin E leads to inhibition of the growth of platelets in the blood and prevents the development of various enzymes involved in inflammatory processes in the body (2).

What is the effect of vitamin E?

The most important function of vitamin E is its antioxidant effect. It protects the body's cells from free radicals that are produced in the human body by metabolic processes or harmful environmental influences such as UV radiation and cigarette smoke. It also has anti-inflammatory and immune-strengthening effects.

Effect on the skin

Due to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory function, alpha-tocopherol has been used for more than 50 years in skin care as well as in the field of dermatology for the treatment of skin-specific diseases such as acne or dermatoses (3). The intake of vitamin E has a number of positive effects on the general appearance of the facial skin in all age groups.

The external application of vitamin E reduces UV radiation on the skin as well as skin redness and inflammation caused by UV rays. Not only the external application of vitamin E, but also its internal intake in the form of capsules or tablets can protect the skin from harmful environmental influences (4). The antioxidant properties of vitamin E neutralise the free radicals that lead to premature skin ageing and skin changes and slow down the ageing process of the skin.

A scientific study investigated the effect of vitamin E in combination with resveratrol and baicalin on the skin. The clinical results found that taking vitamin E within 12 weeks reduced the appearance of wrinkles, age spots and hyperpigmentation and restored skin elasticity, skin firmness and skin rejuvenation (5).

In addition to cosmetic skin care, alpha-tocopherol is used in dermatology to treat various serious dermatological conditions. Most commonly, vitamin E is used to treat skin inflammation, eczema disorders and dematoses such as atopic dermatitis, epidermolysis bullosa and psoriasis (6).

Effect on the hair

The hair not only has an important physiological function and namely protection from direct sunlight, but it is of great importance for the self-esteem of every human being. Very often, sparse and exhausted hair can be a sign of hormonal imbalance, stress, chronic diseases or a sign of a deficiency of important vitamins in the body such as vitamin E (7).

Vitamin E has been used in hair care in many cultures for years. Egyptian and American scientists have found that vitamin E activates the hair follicles and thus the hair growth process. Another study investigated the effects of direct intake of vitamin E on severe hair loss.

The results showed that a daily intake of 100 milligrams of vitamin E led to new hair growth of up to 35% within 8 months. From the results obtained, the scientists conclude that the valuable vitamin E reduces hair loss, supports hair growth and promotes hair thickness (8).

Effect on the nails

Yellow nail syndrome can often be explained by a lack of vitamin E in the body. It is generally characterised with nail growth disorders, yellowing and hardening of the nails. In some more severe cases, other symptoms such as fluid retention and lymphoedema may develop.

Studies conducted found that yellow nail syndrome can be treated with a high-dose intake of 1000 I.U. vitamin E daily for a period of 6 months (9).

Effect on the eyes

In a five-year study, it was investigated to what extent alpha-tocopherol can influence vision or the formation of blue cataracts? In the course of the study, the test persons took vitamin E as a food supplement for more than ten years.

At the end of the study, the results showed that those who took vitamin E had significantly clearer eyes than those who did not. The study found that the antioxidant effects of vitamin E prevented the formation of age-related cataracts and led to less clouding of the lens (10).

Effect on joint diseases

Vitamin E is used to prevent or treat inflammatory joint diseases such as osteoarthritis and arthritis because of its anti-inflammatory effects. During the inflammatory process, many free radicals accumulate. Vitamin E as a radical scavenger fights against the neutralisation of these radicals.

Since osteoarthritis patients suffer from vitamin E deficiency, they should take high-dose vitamin E capsule for joint ailments (11).

Effect on diabetics

Many studies are investigating the effects of vitamin E on one of the world's most common chronic diseases, diabetes. If the body does not get enough vitamin E, this leads to an increase in oxidative stress. This in turn can contribute to the development of diabetes.

Scientists find that pre-diabetics have low levels of vitamin E and conclude that the lack of vitamin E in the body is linked to the development of diabetes (12).

Taking vitamin E may reduce the risk of developing diabetes.

Effect on Alzheimer's disease and memory function

Alzheimer's disease is affecting more and more older people these days. Studies are trying to determine whether vitamin E can slow or prevent the development of Alzheimer's and whether its supplementation has a positive effect on memory function.

An eight-year American study found that low levels of vitamin E in the blood increased the risk of dementia and Alzheimer's disease. The study found that regular and long-term intake of vitamin E in combination with vitamin C prevents the development of Alzheimer's and dementia and supports cognitive ability (13).

Effect on the heart

Atherosclerosis is a disease of the blood vessels in which deposits form in the arteries, in most cases caused by oxidative stress. Oxidation plays an essential role in this vascular disease.

Clinical studies have shown that vitamin E, with its powerful antioxidant effect, reduces oxidation and prevents the formation of deposits in the arteries. In this way, vitamin E inhibits the development of arteriosclerosis in its first phase (14)

Effect on the nervous system

Brain cells are highly susceptible to oxidative stress. The damage and disorders in the human body caused by oxidative stress are often associated with various neuro-diseases.

Scientific studies have found that vitamin E has a positive effect against oxidative damage. Consequently, due to its highly potent antioxidant properties, alpha-tocopherol can protect brain cells from damage caused by oxidative stress and promote their ability to (15)

Effect on cancer

For years, scientists have believed that vitamin E can prevent the development of cancer in its early stages, based on the fact that a deficiency of vitamin E leads to a higher risk of cancer.

After a series of studies, scientists show that gamma and deltatocopherols have the potential to prevent breast, lung, colon and prostate cancer (16)

When and for whom is it recommended to take vitamin E?

Below you will find out in which cases additional supplementation of vitamin E in the form of food supplements is advisable.

How high should vitamin E be?

The normal level of vitamin E in the blood is 6-14 mg/ml. The international unit (IU) of vitamin E concentration is equivalent to approximately 0.666 mg d-alpha-tocopherol or 1 mg. dl-alpha-tocopherol acetate. If the vitamin E level in the body is below 5 mg/ml for a long period of time, this can lead to a vitamin E deficit (17)

What if vitamin E is too low?

Low vitamin E concentration in the blood leads to a deficiency of vitamin E and this in turn leads to various health problems. A sign of vitamin E deficiency are the following symptoms and physical conditions (18):

  1. Fatigue
  2. Lack of concentration
  3. Skin inflammation and irritation
  4. Increased breakdown of red corpuscles
  5. Neurological dysfunctions
  6. Disturbances in muscle metabolism
  7. Muscle weakness
  8. Visual impairment

It is difficult to achieve an absolute deficiency of vitamin E on a diet rich in vital nutrients. This can usually happen in people who consume extremely low calorie food or suffer from impaired bodily functions.

In cases when the vitamin E in the blood is too low, the additional intake of vitamin E capsules as a food supplement is more than necessary to cover an adequate daily requirement of vitamin E.

How much vitamin E should one take per day?

Every single supplement we take must be in the right amount. Only if its required daily dose is adhered to can vitamin E provide optimal effect and protection. Otherwise, an overdose can cause adverse reactions and side effects. The appropriate daily dose of alpha-tocopherol is determined by age.

According to the German Society for Nutrition, the minimum daily intake of vitamin E varies in the different age groups as follows (19):

age mg/ml vitamin E per day for women mg/ml vitamin E per day for men
infants from 0 to 4 months 3 3
from 4 to 12 4 4
children 1 to 4 years 6 5
from 4 to 7 years 8 8
from 7 to 10 10 9
from 10 to 13 13 11
adolescents and adults from 15 to 25 15 12
from 25 to 51 14 12
from 51 to 65 12 12

Remember that this table provides information on the minimum daily intake of alpha-tocopherol. The amounts given should be taken daily so that deficiency symptoms are prevented.

For vitamin E to be immunostimulant, anti-inflammatory, preventative and therapeutic, you need to take it in a solid dose of something like 400 I.U, 600 I.U per day. This is usually done with the help of vitamin E supplements such as capsules.

What are the possible side effects of taking vitamin E?

Vitamin E capsules should be taken according to the recommended daily dose, otherwise undesirable side effects may occur. At a daily dose higher than 300 IU, vitamin E may cause the following symptoms such as fatigue, headache, metabolic disorders, diarrhoea, nausea and intestinal cramps.

In a large study involving more than 39,000 healthy women who took 600 I.U. of vitamin E every day for about 10 years, frequent nose bleeds were observed as a side effect of the high dose of vitamin E (20).

How much do vitamin E capsules cost?

Prices vary depending on whether the capsules contain naturally occurring or synthetically manufactured vitamin E. Vitamin E capsules are available on the internet at lower prices than in pharmacies.

Type price
Natural vitamin E capsules from €7
Synthetic vitamin E capsules from €10
Vegan vitamin E capsules from €15

What is the alternative to vitamin E capsules?

Vitamin E is found in a number of natural foods. It is produced exclusively by plants. Plant oils are the most important sources of vitamin E (21).

Vitamin E Kapseln-2

Many vegetable oils rich in vitamin E are part of our daily menu.
(Image source: unsplash.com/Alex Holyoake)

The following oils have a high content of vitamin E:

  • Olive oil, wine germ oil, rapeseed oil, sunflower oil and safflower oil. Soya, coconut and maize germ oil also contain vitamin E.

For people who are allergic to soy, vitamin E capsules are offered without soy content.

Nuts and wholemeal products are also rich in vitamin E:

  • Hazelnuts
  • Walnuts
  • Peanuts
  • Almonds
  • Multigrain muesli
  • Oatmeal
Remember that vitamin E capsules are not a substitute for a varied diet.

Vitamin E is also found in animal foods:

  • Milk
  • Eggs
  • Meat
  • Fish (oil sardines, smoked eel)

If most of these vitamin E-rich foods are not in your weekly menu, you should take vitamin E as a food supplement in capsule form if needed.

What other vitamin E supplements are available?

Vitamin E is available in various forms. Besides capsules and tablets for internal use, it can be purchased in the form of oil or cream for internal use.

  • Vitamin E tablets: Like the capsules, vitamin E tablets are taken with water. They also contribute to normal vitamin E levels in the body.
  • VitaminE oils: Vitamin E oils can be applied directly to the skin or added to your own skin creams.
  • Vitamin E in dermocosmetics: Many skin sun creams have a vitamin E content.

Decision: What types of vitamin E capsules are there and which one is right for you?

There are two types of vitamin E capsules. The difference is in the way vitamin E is obtained. There are capsules with:

  • Natural vitamin E
  • Synthetic vitamin E

More and more often, vitamin E can be bought as a pure or natural product in addition to the chemically produced form.

Vitamin E Kapseln-3

The human body prefers vitamin E extracted from natural sources to the synthetic isomers of vitamin E.
(Image source: unsplash.com/Adam Niescioruk)

Vitamin E is the only vitamin where its natural and synthetic forms differ in terms of their chemical structure and effects. The two forms have health-promoting properties.

Naturally derived vitamin E and synthetically produced vitamin E are absorbed by the body in the same way. The difference is in their recognition by the body and their retention time in the blood.

What distinguishes natural vitamin E capsules and what are their advantages and disadvantages?

Natural vitamin E (d-alpha-tocopherol or RRR-alpha-tocopherol) is derived from vegetable oils, usually extracted from sunflower seeds, soybeans, corn and rapeseed. The capsules containing vitamin E from natural sources consist of d-alpha-tocopherol.

Naturally occurring vitamin E is more readily recognised by the body than synthetic. Because of this selection process, natural vitamin E stays longer in the human body than chemically produced vitamin E. This means that it has a higher bioavailability. This means that it has a higher bioavailability.

Advantages
  • Extracted from natural raw materials
  • More quickly absorbed by the body
  • Consistently higher levels in the blood
  • Better bioavailability
Disadvantages
  • Not suitable for vegans and allergy sufferers

What are the advantages and disadvantages of synthetic vitamin E capsules?

Chemically produced vitamin E (dl-alpha-tocopherol or all-rac-alpha-tocopherol) consists of a mixture of eight diastereoisomers, only 12.5% of which resemble natural vitamin E. The remaining seven stereoisomers distinguish vitamin E from other vitamins. The remaining seven stereoisomers are characterised by a different molecular structure and a lower biological activity. The capsules of synthetic vitamin E contain dl-alpha-tocopherol.

After ingestion and recognition by the body, the synthetic form is quickly excreted. You need to consume about twice as much synthetic vitamin E to get the same activity that natural vitamin E has.

For allergy sufferers, synthetic vitamin E is recommended because, unlike natural vitamin E, it contains only a small amount of additives from plants such as soybean oil (22).

Advantages
  • Suitable for vegans and allergy sufferers
Disadvantages
  • Lower biological activity
  • No constant content in the blood

Buying criteria: Use these factors to compare and evaluate vitamin E capsules

Here are some criteria to consider when buying vitamin E capsules.

Dosage

The dosage of individual vitamin E capsules is an important purchase criterion. The vitamin E dose of the capsules is not always indicated on the package in mg. On most product packages, the daily dose is given in IU. Most vitamin E capsules are highly dosed, i.e. with a dosage of 200 IU, 300 IU, 400 IU, 600 IU and 1000 IU. 1000 IU corresponds to 671 mg.

Piece

Vitamin E capsules are available in bottles of 30, 50, 100, 120, 200 and 200. It is up to you whether you want to buy a bottle with more capsules. The advantage of larger packs is that they can be used over a longer period of time if only one capsule is taken per day. 120 vitamin E capsules are enough for 4 months - so a targeted vitamin E diet is possible.

Vegan Vitamin E Capsules

Vegan vitamin E capsules are also available. They are gluten-free and lacktose-free. The capsule shell is made of gelatin, which is 100% vegetable-based.

With soy and without soy

Many drug manufacturers also offer soy-free vitamin E capsules for those who are allergic to soy.

Interesting facts about vitamin E capsules

How, when and for how long do you need to take vitamin E capsules?

There are two important things you need to know about taking vitamin E capsules:

  1. Do not swallow vitamin E capsules with hot liquids, as vitamin E is sensitive to heat!
  2. Do not take vitamin E capsules on an empty stomach!
Vitamin E capsules develop their antioxidant and healing effects when taken properly and for a long time.

Since vitamin E is a fat-soluble vitamin, vitamin E capsules must be combined with meals. In this way, they can be best processed with the dietary fats in the intestine.

You can take vitamin E capsules as a dietary supplement if you suffer from a severe vitamin E deficiency, as well as if you want to strengthen your performance, concentration, endurance and immune system.

Source: https://ogaenics.com/8-fehler-bei-der-einnahme-von-vitaminen/

Can vitamin E capsules be mixed with cream?

Vitamin E capsules are suitable for internal use. Breaking open the capsule to remove its active ingredients is not particularly recommended. If you want to mix vitamin E in your own skin care products and judge its dosage yourself, you should use oil for this purpose.

Can vitamin E be taken during pregnancy?

One of the most frequently asked questions about vitamin E is whether it is appropriate to take it during pregnancy. Our answer is: 100% yes! As a powerful antioxidant, vitamin E can support the mother and the development of the fetus during all stages of pregnancy. Taking vitamin E properly reduces the possibility of a severe and complicated pregnancy. To ensure that mother and child are in the best of health before and after pregnancy, vitamin E is essential. The recommended daily dose of vitamin E for pregnant and breastfeeding women is 13 to a maximum of 15 mg (23).

Another study published in the International Journal of Reproductive Biomedicine found that vitamin E in combination with aspirin can increase the likelihood of pregnancy and reduce the risk of miscarriage (24).

Image source: puhhha/ 123rf.com

References (24)

1. Reinhard Saller, Christine Römer-Lüthi, Reto Bringnoli, Remy Maier: Vitamin E – Antioxidans - par excellence. Verlag für GanzheitsMedizin, Basel. Schweiz. Zschr. GanzheitsMedizin 2007; 19(4)204–211.
Source

2. Reinhard Saller, Christine Römer-Lüthi, Reto Bringnoli, Remy Maier: Vitamin E – Antioxidans - par excellence. Verlag für GanzheitsMedizin, Basel. Schweiz. Zschr. GanzheitsMedizin 2007; 19(4)204–211.
Source

3. Keen MA, Hassan I. Vitamin E in dermatology. Indian Dermatol Online J. 2016;7(4):311-315.
Source

4. Alexander J. Michels, Ph.D. Vitamin E and Skin Health. Oregon State University
Source

5. Farris P, Yatskayer M, Chen N. Evaluation of Efficacy and Tolerance of a Nighttime Topical Antioxidant Containing Resveratrol, Baicalin, and Vitamin E for Treatment of Mild to Moderately Photodamaged Skin. J Drugs Dermatol. 2014 Dec;13(12):1467-72.
Source

6. Keen MA, Hassan I. Vitamin E in dermatology. Indian Dermatol Online J. 2016;7(4):311-315.
Source

7. Beoy LA, Woei WJ, Hay YK. Effects of Tocotrienol Supplementation on Hair Growth in Human Volunteers. Trop Life Sci Res. 2010;21(2):91-99.
Source

8. Beoy LA, Woei WJ, Hay YK. Effects of Tocotrienol Supplementation on Hair Growth in Human Volunteers. Trop Life Sci Res. 2010;21(2):91-99.
Source

9. Al Hawsawi Khalid, Pope Elena. Yellow Nail Syndrome. Pediatr Dermatol. Nov-Dec 2010;27(6):675-6.
Source

10. Jacques P, Taylor A, Moeller S. Long-term nutrient intake and 5-year change in nuclear lens opacities. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2005; 123(4): 517-526
Source

11. Chin Kok-Yong, Ima-Nirwana Soelaiman.The Role of Vitamin E in Preventing and Treating Osteoarthritis – A Review of the Current Evidence. Front Pharmacol. 2018; 9: 946.
Source

12. Rodríguez-Ramírez G, Simental-Mendía LE, Carrera-Gracia MA. Vitamin E Deficiency and Oxidative Status are Associated with Prediabetes in Apparently Healthy Subjects. Arch Med Res. 2017 Apr;48(3):257-262.
Source

13. La Fata G, Weber P, Mohajeri MH. Effects of Vitamin E on Cognitive Performance during Ageing and in Alzheimer’s Disease. Nutrients 2014;6(12):5453-5472.
Source

14. Dr. Angelo Azzi, Bern, Priv.-Doz. Dr.Joachim Thiery, München, Prof. Dr.Diethelm Tschöpe, Düsseldorf, Prof. Dr.Henning Schröder, Halle, Prof. Dr.Gisela Fischer, Hannover, Pressezirkel "Vitamin E als präventiv-medizinisches Antioxidans. Von der physiologischen Wirkung zum präventiven Bedarf". Königswinter, 28.April 1998. In: DAZ 1998, Nr.22, S.58
Source

15. Sen C, Khanna S and Roy S. Tocotrienol: the natural vitamin E to defend the nervous system? Annals of the NY Academy of Sci. 2004: 1031: 127-142
Source

16. Constantinou C, Papas A, Constantinou AI. Vitamin E and cancer: An insight into the anticancer activities of vitamin E isomers and analogs. Int J Cancer. 2008 Aug 15;123(4):739-52
Source

17. Reinhard Saller, Christine Römer-Lüthi, Reto Bringnoli, Remy Maier: Vitamin E – Antioxidans - par excellence. Verlag für GanzheitsMedizin, Basel. Schweiz. Zschr. GanzheitsMedizin 2007; 19(4)204–211.
Source

18. Kalra V, Grover J, Ahuja GK, Rathi S, Khurana DS. Vitamin E deficiency and associated neurological deficits in children with protein-energy malnutrition. J Trop Pediatr 1998; Oct 44(5):291–5
Source

19. Deutsche Gesellschaft für Ernährung e.V. Vitamin E (Tocopherole)
Source

20. Remy Maier: Vitamin E – Antioxidans - par excellence. Verlag für GanzheitsMedizin, Basel. Schweiz. Zschr. GanzheitsMedizin 2007; 19(4)204–211.
Source

21. Biesalski HK: Vitamin E. In: Ernährungsmedizin. Hrsg.: Biesalski HK, Bischoff SC, Puchstein C. Thieme Verlag, 2010
Source

22. Auf die Herkunft kommt es an. In: Unterschiedliche Wirkungen von natürlichem und synthetischem Vitamin E. 2001.
Source

23. Rumbold A, Ota E, Hori H. Vitamin E supplementation in pregnancy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015 Sep 7;(9)
Source

24. Mesdaghinia E, Mohammad-Ebrahimi B, Foroozanfard F. The effect of vitamin E and aspirin on the uterine artery blood flow in women with recurrent abortion: A single-blind randomized controlled trial. Int J Reprod Biomed. 2017 Oct;15(10):635-640.
Source

Why you can trust me?

Wissentschaftlicher Artikel
Reinhard Saller, Christine Römer-Lüthi, Reto Bringnoli, Remy Maier: Vitamin E – Antioxidans - par excellence. Verlag für GanzheitsMedizin, Basel. Schweiz. Zschr. GanzheitsMedizin 2007; 19(4)204–211.
Go to source
Wissentschaftlicher Artikel
Reinhard Saller, Christine Römer-Lüthi, Reto Bringnoli, Remy Maier: Vitamin E – Antioxidans - par excellence. Verlag für GanzheitsMedizin, Basel. Schweiz. Zschr. GanzheitsMedizin 2007; 19(4)204–211.
Go to source
Wissenschaftliche Studie
Keen MA, Hassan I. Vitamin E in dermatology. Indian Dermatol Online J. 2016;7(4):311-315.
Go to source
Wissenschaftliche Studie
Alexander J. Michels, Ph.D. Vitamin E and Skin Health. Oregon State University
Go to source
Wissenschaftliche Studie
Farris P, Yatskayer M, Chen N. Evaluation of Efficacy and Tolerance of a Nighttime Topical Antioxidant Containing Resveratrol, Baicalin, and Vitamin E for Treatment of Mild to Moderately Photodamaged Skin. J Drugs Dermatol. 2014 Dec;13(12):1467-72.
Go to source
Wissenschaftliche Studie
Keen MA, Hassan I. Vitamin E in dermatology. Indian Dermatol Online J. 2016;7(4):311-315.
Go to source
Wissenschaftliche Studie
Beoy LA, Woei WJ, Hay YK. Effects of Tocotrienol Supplementation on Hair Growth in Human Volunteers. Trop Life Sci Res. 2010;21(2):91-99.
Go to source
Wissenschaftliche Studie
Beoy LA, Woei WJ, Hay YK. Effects of Tocotrienol Supplementation on Hair Growth in Human Volunteers. Trop Life Sci Res. 2010;21(2):91-99.
Go to source
Wissenschaftliche Studie
Al Hawsawi Khalid, Pope Elena. Yellow Nail Syndrome. Pediatr Dermatol. Nov-Dec 2010;27(6):675-6.
Go to source
Wissenschaftliche Studie
Jacques P, Taylor A, Moeller S. Long-term nutrient intake and 5-year change in nuclear lens opacities. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2005; 123(4): 517-526
Go to source
Wissenschaftliche Review
Chin Kok-Yong, Ima-Nirwana Soelaiman.The Role of Vitamin E in Preventing and Treating Osteoarthritis – A Review of the Current Evidence. Front Pharmacol. 2018; 9: 946.
Go to source
Wissenschaftliche Studie
Rodríguez-Ramírez G, Simental-Mendía LE, Carrera-Gracia MA. Vitamin E Deficiency and Oxidative Status are Associated with Prediabetes in Apparently Healthy Subjects. Arch Med Res. 2017 Apr;48(3):257-262.
Go to source
Wissenschaftliche Review
La Fata G, Weber P, Mohajeri MH. Effects of Vitamin E on Cognitive Performance during Ageing and in Alzheimer’s Disease. Nutrients 2014;6(12):5453-5472.
Go to source
Wissenschaftlicher Artikel
Dr. Angelo Azzi, Bern, Priv.-Doz. Dr.Joachim Thiery, München, Prof. Dr.Diethelm Tschöpe, Düsseldorf, Prof. Dr.Henning Schröder, Halle, Prof. Dr.Gisela Fischer, Hannover, Pressezirkel "Vitamin E als präventiv-medizinisches Antioxidans. Von der physiologischen Wirkung zum präventiven Bedarf". Königswinter, 28.April 1998. In: DAZ 1998, Nr.22, S.58
Go to source
Wissenschaftliche Review
Sen C, Khanna S and Roy S. Tocotrienol: the natural vitamin E to defend the nervous system? Annals of the NY Academy of Sci. 2004: 1031: 127-142
Go to source
Wissenschaftliche Review
Constantinou C, Papas A, Constantinou AI. Vitamin E and cancer: An insight into the anticancer activities of vitamin E isomers and analogs. Int J Cancer. 2008 Aug 15;123(4):739-52
Go to source
Wissenschaftlicher Artikel
Reinhard Saller, Christine Römer-Lüthi, Reto Bringnoli, Remy Maier: Vitamin E – Antioxidans - par excellence. Verlag für GanzheitsMedizin, Basel. Schweiz. Zschr. GanzheitsMedizin 2007; 19(4)204–211.
Go to source
Wissenschaftliche Studie
Kalra V, Grover J, Ahuja GK, Rathi S, Khurana DS. Vitamin E deficiency and associated neurological deficits in children with protein-energy malnutrition. J Trop Pediatr 1998; Oct 44(5):291–5
Go to source
Wissenschaftliche Tabelle
Deutsche Gesellschaft für Ernährung e.V. Vitamin E (Tocopherole)
Go to source
Wissenschaftlicher Artikel
Remy Maier: Vitamin E – Antioxidans - par excellence. Verlag für GanzheitsMedizin, Basel. Schweiz. Zschr. GanzheitsMedizin 2007; 19(4)204–211.
Go to source
Buch
Biesalski HK: Vitamin E. In: Ernährungsmedizin. Hrsg.: Biesalski HK, Bischoff SC, Puchstein C. Thieme Verlag, 2010
Go to source
Wissenschaftlicher Artikel
Auf die Herkunft kommt es an. In: Unterschiedliche Wirkungen von natürlichem und synthetischem Vitamin E. 2001.
Go to source
Wissenschaftlicher Review
Rumbold A, Ota E, Hori H. Vitamin E supplementation in pregnancy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015 Sep 7;(9)
Go to source
Wissenschaftlicher Artikel
Mesdaghinia E, Mohammad-Ebrahimi B, Foroozanfard F. The effect of vitamin E and aspirin on the uterine artery blood flow in women with recurrent abortion: A single-blind randomized controlled trial. Int J Reprod Biomed. 2017 Oct;15(10):635-640.
Go to source
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