Last updated: August 10, 2021

Our method

21Products analysed

48Hours spent

25Evaluated articles

102User reviews

Vitamin K2 MK7 is involved in blood clotting, as well as the regulation of calcium in the body. It can help prevent vascular calcification and osteoporosis. If you want to learn more about the effects and possible applications of vitamin K2 MK7, you've come to the right place. In our large vitamin K2 MK7 test 2021 we not only present popular vitamin K2 MK7 products. Here you can find out for whom and why a supplementation of vitamin K2 MK7 could be useful. Did you know that your dog can also have a vitamin K2 MK7 deficiency? Find out more in our vitamin K2 MK7 guide.




Summary

  • Vitamin K2 MK7 is fat-soluble. It regulates blood clotting and ensures optimal utilisation of calcium in your body. It can thus protect against vascular calcification and osteoporosis.
  • Vitamin K2 MK7 is available in cis and trans form. While cis-vitamin K2 MK7 is almost ineffective, trans-vitamin K2 MK7 is the most effective form of vitamin K2. This is because it has the longest half-life and the best bioavailability in the body.
  • Vitamin K2 MK7 is found especially in fermented foods such as natto. It is also produced in the intestine by bacteria. Supplementation is therefore particularly useful in the case of an unbalanced diet or certain pre-existing conditions.

The Best Vitamin K2 MK7: Our Picks

Buying and evaluation criteria for vitamin K2 MK7

When buying vitamin K2 MK7 you can pay attention to several aspects, such as:

With the help of the following buying criteria, it will be easier for you to choose the right vitamin K2 MK7 preparation for your needs. This not only saves money, but also ensures that you provide your body with the ideal supply. Basically, look for high quality and possibly even ask to see the manufacturer's certificates.

Dosage form

Vitamin K2 MK7 products are generally offered in capsule, tablet and drop form. There is no great difference in price between the various dosage forms. Tablets are the simplest and therefore cheapest form of vitamin K2 MK7 products. In contrast to vitamin K2 MK7 tablets, capsules often contain special oils in which the vitamin is dissolved. This makes it easier for your body to absorb.

If you have problems taking tablets, vitamin K2 MK7 drops are suitable. Here, too, the active ingredient is dissolved in oil. The liquid form makes taking and dosing particularly easy and is therefore also suitable for children and pets. Vitamin K2 MK7 sprays in different flavours are also available especially for children. The spray is sprayed on the tongue and the active ingredient is then absorbed through the mucous membrane.

Dosage

The different vitamin K2 MK7 products contain different dosages of the active ingredient per drop, tablet or capsule. It is best to adjust the dosage to your specific needs. Therefore, find out the right dose for you before you buy. If you suffer from a vitamin K2 MK7 deficiency, high-dose vitamin MK7 products are recommended. For children or for people who already consume a lot of vitamin K2 in their diet, a lower dose is sufficient.

Package contents

The price is mainly determined by the contents of the vitamin K2 MK7 products. If you want to test a product first, it is worthwhile to buy smaller pack sizes. These are cheap and can be used up quickly if you are not satisfied with your vitamin K2 MK7 product. In general, however, it is worth spending a little more money and buying a bulk pack of your preferred vitamin K2 MK7 product. This way you will not only save money in the long run, but also time.

Complexes with other active ingredients

Multi-supplements that contain vitamin D3 or vitamin C in addition to vitamin K2 MK7 are very common. The combination of vitamins is particularly useful because it is more easily absorbed by the body. Liquid vitamin K2 MK7 and capsules also contain oils that make it easier for the body to absorb the active ingredients. This is often MCT oil, which is extracted from coconut oil. If you are vegan or suffer from gluten or lactose intolerances, make sure you choose a vitamin K2 MK7 product that is free from gluten, lactose and animal substances such as gelatine.

Source

Have you asked yourself what the difference is between vitamin K2 MK7 and vitamin K2 MK4, MK8 and MK9? It is the source from which the vitamin K2 is obtained. The vitamins can either be obtained from natural sources such as natto, or produced synthetically. If you are a vegetarian or vegan, vitamin K2 MK4 is not suitable for you because it is derived from animal products such as eggs or meat. If you are vegan, it is best to take vitamin K2 MK7, which is usually made from fermented soybeans. Vegetarians can also take MK8 or MK9, which are obtained from fermented dairy products.

Guide: Frequently asked questions about vitamin K2 MK7 answered in detail

In order to inform you comprehensively about the effectiveness of vitamin K2 MK7 and to give you an understanding of the current state of science, we have summarised all the important information in the following sections.

What is vitamin K2 MK7 and how does it work?

The members of the vitamin K2 family are also called menaquinones. The menaquinones are distinguished by the length of their isoprenoid side chains. Vitamin K2 MK7 thus has a side chain of seven isoprenoid units.

Form Source Efficacy
MK4 Meat, eggs Poor bioavailability
MK7 Cis Fermented foods such as soybeans, synthetically derived from flower oils 99 % ineffective
MK7 Trans Fermented foods such as soybeans, synthetically derived from flower oils Best bioavailability and longest half-life
MK8, MK9 Fermented dairy products such as yoghurt and cheese Little researched

Vitamin K2 is produced by bacteria and is therefore found in fermented foods. Bacteria in the human large intestine also produce menaquinones. However, these are only poorly utilised by the body and therefore play a subordinate role for the vitamin K2 household in the body (1). Vitamin K2 MK7 is particularly fat-soluble and has a long half-life. This makes vitamin K2 MK7 the most effective form of menaquinones, because it has a high bioavailability and stays in the body longer than other vitamin K2 forms due to its long half-life (1). Another important factor in the effectiveness of vitamin K2 MK7 products is the structure of the molecule. Generally, vitamin K2 MK2 exists in a cis and trans structure. However, only the trans vitamin K2 MK7 can be utilised by the body. Due to its structure, cis-vitamin K2 MK7 is almost ineffective because it cannot link to the necessary enzymes (2, 3). To ensure that your vitamin K2 MK7 product can develop its full effect in your body, look for a trans content of at least 98% when buying it. These products are also called all-trans vitamin K2 MK7.

Effect on osteoporosis and vascular calcification

Calcium is an important component of bones and teeth and ensures their stability. However, if calcium is deposited in the blood vessels, this can lead to a heart attack. Vitamin K2 MK7 therefore ensures that the calcium ends up in the bones and teeth and not in our blood vessels. In this way it prevents hardening of the arteries, i.e. arteriosclerosis, and brittle bones, i.e. osteoporosis. Postmenopausal women in particular have an increased risk of osteoporosis. Supplementation of vitamin K2 has been shown to have a positive effect in several studies (4, 5). The Nurse Heath Study in Harvard, for example, found a 30 % reduction in hip fractures in women who took at least 100 mg of vitamin K daily (6).

Vitamin K2 MK7

Vitamin K2 MK7 can contribute to heart health by protecting your vessels from calcification (Image source: Jesse orrico / Unsplash).

Furthermore, vitamin K2 MK7 plays a central role in preventing hardening of the arteries. In a ten-year study conducted in Rotterdam, 4807 healthy men and women older than 55 years took part. The study found that a vitamin K2 intake of at least 32 µg daily led to a 50 % reduction in fatal coronary heart disease (7). An EPIC study of 16,000 healthy men and women between the ages of 49 and 70 confirmed this. The eight-year study found that an increased intake of natural vitamin K2 MK7 leads to a reduction in coronary heart disease. The risk even decreased by 9 % per 10 µg vitamin K2 MK7 intake (8).

Effect on blood clotting

Not only vitamin K1 has a key role in blood clotting, also called coagulation, in the body. Vitamin K2, especially vitamin K2 MK7, also influences this. Vitamin K activates the production of blood clotting factors in the liver. If blood coagulation is disturbed, this can lead to thromboses, embolisms or even increased blood loss. The unit of measurement for blood clotting is INR. An INR that is too low can lead to clots, while an INR that is too high can lead to increased blood loss.

Patients taking blood thinners are advised not to take vitamin K-containing foods or supplements.

Studies have found that vitamin K2 MK7 doses as low as 10 to 20 µg have measurable effects on blood clotting factors (9). The INR can thus be reduced by 40 to 60 %. However, as already mentioned, vitamin K2 MK7 has a key role in the utilisation of calcium and can thus prevent osteoporosis and arteriosclerosis. To prevent vitamin K2 MK7 deficiency in patients taking blood thinners, new studies therefore recommend a constant and controlled vitamin K2 intake. Under medical supervision, this can lead to a stabilisation of the INR values (10).

Effect on type 2 diabetes and cancer

Vitamin K2 MK7 has also gained attention in diabetes and cancer research. Studies have shown a reduction in the risk of type 2 diabetes through vitamin K2 intake (11). The effect of vitamin K2 MK7 on insulin resistance is controversial (12). However, diabetes patients suffer from an increased risk of bone fractures and vascular calcification (12, 13), which in turn can be positively influenced by vitamin K2 MK7 supplementation. A positive correlation between the intake of vitamin K2 MK7 and a reduced risk of cancer has also been found in cancer research. An EPIC study in Heidelberg came to the conclusion that there was an inverse correlation between vitamin K2 MK7 intake and the occurrence of certain cancers. The effect was more pronounced in men than in women (14).

When and for whom is the intake of vitamin K2 MK7 useful?

Vitamin K2 MK7 is not only important for blood clotting and bone formation, but can also reduce your risk of getting serious diseases. This includes, for example, certain types of cancer or type 2 diabetes. Vitamin K2 MK7 is particularly important for:

  • People with blood clotting disorders
  • People with bone diseases
  • People with blood vessel disorders
  • People with sensitive teeth
  • Overweight people
  • Elderly people
  • Children and young people

Normally, we take in enough vitamin K2 MK7 through our diet. However, an unbalanced diet or illness can lead to a vitamin K2 MK7 deficiency. In these cases, supplementation with vitamin K2 MK7 is particularly useful. Postmenopausal women may also benefit from vitamin K2 MK7 supplementation to reduce the risk of osteoporosis (4, 5) . Furthermore, people with cardiovascular heart disease may benefit from vitamin K2 MK7 intake (15, 16). This is because vitamin K2 MK7 can prevent calcification in blood vessels. In addition, vitamin K2 MK7 supplementation may also be useful for children to support healthy bone and tooth formation (17, 18).

Do animals need vitamin K2 MK7 products?

Vitamin K2 MK7 is also produced by bacteria in the intestines of dogs and cats. It fulfils the same functions in the body as in humans.

Vitamin K2 MK7

Vitamin K2 MK7 is involved in the same processes in the body of dogs and cats as it is in humans. Therefore, you should also make sure that your pets have a sufficient supply (Image source: Tran Mau Tri Tam / Unsplash).

If your pet suffers from a chronic intestinal disease, for example, or has to take antibiotics often, it may have a vitamin K2 MK7 deficiency. If you suspect that your pet is suffering from a vitamin K2 deficiency, first talk to a vet. Make sure your pet has a balanced diet and include sources of vitamin K such as fish meal, liver and greens. For diseases that lead to a vitamin K2 deficit, you can use special food with added vitamin K2 MK7. Be sure to check the quality of the added vitamins.

Which foods contain vitamin K2 MK7?

Bacteria in the large intestine produce most of the vitamin K2 in the body. In addition, we can get vitamin K2 from our food. The following table shows you which foods can help you supply your body with vitamin K2 MK7.

Food Vitamin K2 content µg/100 g
Natto (fermented soya beans) 998 (MK7)
Goose liver 365 (MK4)
Hard cheese 77 (MK4-MK10)
Soft cheese 57 (MK4-MK10)
Egg yolk 31 (MK4)
Butter 15 (MK4)
Chicken 9 (MK4)
Pork 1.6 (MK7,MK8)

Vitamin K2 is therefore mainly found in fermented foods. Sauerkraut or kimchi are also good sources of vitamin K2. Furthermore, vitamin K2 is fat-soluble and is therefore best taken with a fat source such as high-quality oil. Since vitamin K2 is heat-resistant, you can also heat the food without any problems. Now you may notice that it is relatively difficult to get vitamin K2 MK7 from food alone. Our body produces vitamin K2 itself, but a healthy intestinal flora is a prerequisite. If the intestinal flora is damaged by antibiotics, for example, it is worth supplementing with vitamin K2 MK7.

What is the recommended daily dose of vitamin K2 MK7?

The recommended daily requirement depends on many factors. Therefore, it is important to consult your doctor if in doubt, especially if you have pre-existing conditions. In general, however, experts recommend the following daily doses of vitamin K2 MK7:

Age amount of vitamin K2 in µg
Babies less than 10 µg
Toddlers about 15 µg
Children up to about 50 µg
Healthy adults up to 200 µg
Pregnant women up to about 60 µg

Recent studies recommend a daily vitamin K2 MK7 dose of 100 to 200 µg (19)for healthy adults. For older people or overweight people, a higher daily dose of up to 200 µg is recommended. A daily dose of vitamin K2 MK7 of up to 200 µg could also be beneficial for coronary vascular diseases or brittle bones in the post-menopause. An overdose of vitamin K2 MK7 is impossible and does not lead to blood thickening. This is because once saturation has been reached in the body, proteins can no longer absorb vitamin K2. However, people taking blood thinners should definitely contact their doctor to determine a safe daily dose.

How does a vitamin K2 MK7 deficiency manifest itself?

While vitamin K1 is mainly found in green leafy vegetables, vitamin K2 MK7 is only found in fermented foods. A vitamin K1 deficiency is therefore rather rare. It is controversial whether vitamin K1 can be converted into vitamin K2 in the body when there is an excess. Even if this conversion takes place, it contributes only to a very small extent to the vitamin K2 MK7 supply. A much larger proportion of vitamin K2 MK7 is produced by bacteria in our large intestine. However, a healthy intestinal flora is a prerequisite. However, some studies indicate that intestinal health in western industrialised countries is disturbed due to an unhealthy or one-sided diet.

Also, the overuse of antibiotics and the sterile environment in which we mostly live leads to a disturbance of intestinal health (20) In addition, certain diseases as well as an increased vitamin D3 or calcium intake can lead to a vitamin K2 deficiency. A vitamin K2 deficiency can therefore occur with:

  • unbalanced diet
  • chronic gastrointestinal diseases
  • Bowel resections
  • chronic liver disease
  • Alcoholism
  • Obesity or bariatric surgery
  • Antibiotic use

Do your wounds bleed more or do you have frequent nosebleeds? Do you bruise quickly and often? Do you have problems concentrating and often feel listless? These are all symptoms of a vitamin K2 deficiency. In these cases, a food supplement will help you to compensate for your vitamin K2 MK7 deficit.

What types of vitamin K2 MK7 are available?

Vitamin K2 MK7 products are available in numerous dosages and dosage forms. In general, the following types of vitamin K2 MK7 products can be distinguished:

type description
Vitamin K2 MK7 all-trans products with over 98 % vitamin K2 MK7 in the trans structure form. Best bioavailability and longest half-life of about 72 hours and therefore most effective.
Vitamin K2 MK7 + D3 complexes of vitamin K2 MK7 and vitamin D3 are available in liquid or capsule form in various dosages
High-dose vitamin K2 MK7 drops and capsules with vitamin K2 MK7 dosages between 200 and 1000 µg

Below you will find detailed information on the different types of vitamin K2 MK7. We show you the different advantages and disadvantages of the different types of products. This way you can decide which product is best for you.

Vitamin K2 MK7 all-trans products

Products labelled vitamin K2 MK7 all-trans must contain at least 98% vitamin K2 MK7 in the trans-structure form. Because of its geometric structure, trans vitamin K2 MK7 fits like a key into the lock of the proteins it activates.

The trans form is the most effective form of vitamin K2 MK7.

Vitamin K2 MK7 all-trans can be produced naturally or synthetically. Natural production is by fermentation from soy and by bacteria in the gut. Synthetically, vitamin K2 MK7 is made from flower oils. Note, however, that both methods use laboratory technology to produce all-trans vitamin K2 MK7 products. Generally, good vitamin K2 MK7 products contain up to 2 % cis. Poor products may also contain 74% cis vitamin K2 MK7. However, recent studies found that many vitamin K2 MK7 products labelled as all-trans actually had a much lower all-trans content and some were even ineffective (21).

Advantages
  • High bioavailability
  • 72 hours in the body
  • available as tablets, capsules and liquids
  • vegetarian (often vegan)
Disadvantages
  • Labels misleading

So when buying, be sure to look for reputable manufacturers, who are often recognisable by a higher price. Certificates can also be helpful to get an effective vitamin K2 MK7 product.

Vitamin K2 MK7 + vitamin D3 products

Combination preparations of vitamin K2 MK7 with vitamin D3 are often offered because both vitamins support the same processes in the body. Thus, the vitamins contribute to the maintenance and normal function of:

  • Bones and teeth
  • Muscles
  • Immune system

These products are also offered as tablets, capsules and in liquid form. In addition to vitamin K2 MK7 + D3, capsules contain oils that further promote absorption in the body. Sprays or drops are particularly suitable for children. They are offered in many flavours and are particularly easy to dose.

Advantages
  • Holistic supply of vitamin K2 + D3
  • Prevents K2 deficiency
  • Only one supplement instead of two
  • Capsules, tablets, liquid
Disadvantages
  • No independent dosing of vitamins possible
  • Possible interaction with blood thinners

High-dose vitamin K2 MK7 products

Taking high-dose vitamin K2 MK7 makes sense for people with pre-existing conditions, but also for older people. Postmenopausal women should also take high-dose products (22). . These products are not suitable for children and pregnant women. People who take blood thinners should also avoid high-dose vitamin K2 MK7. Always check with your doctor before taking high-dose vitamin K2 MK7 products. This protects you from possible interactions with medicines you are taking.

Advantages
  • In case of an unbalanced diet
  • in case of pre-existing conditions
  • capsules, tablets, liquid
Disadvantages
  • only after consultation with a doctor
  • not for children or pregnant women
  • not with blood thinners

High-dose vitamin K2 MK7 products usually contain between 200 and 1000 µg of the vitamin. These products are also available as tablets, capsules or liquid, depending on your preference. Make sure that these products also have the label all-trans. This is the only way to ensure that the vitamin K2 MK7 is effective.

How much do vitamin K2 MK7 products cost and where can I buy them?

You can find vitamin K2 MK7 products in pharmacies, fitness shops or online shops. You can find a large selection in the following online shops:

  • Amazon
  • Vita4you
  • Sunday
  • Drjacobs
  • Medicine Fox

There is a relatively large price range for the vitamin K2 MK7 products on offer, which you can see in the table below.

Dosage form Price
Tablets 5 to 15€
Tablets 15 to 35€
Capsules 15 to 25€
Drops, spray 15 to 25€

The price of vitamin K2 MK7 products depends greatly on the dosage form and the package size. In general, however, vitamin K2 MK7 tablets are the cheapest, while vitamin K2 MK7 drops are considerably more expensive. However, due to the easy handling and the very good tolerability, the drops are also suitable for most users.

Is taking vitamin K2 MK7 harmful?

Vitamin K2 MK7 is a natural vitamin that is also produced by your body. It is therefore free of side effects. If you take more vitamin K2 MK7 than your body needs, there will be no thickening of the blood or even thrombosis. Your body uses vitamin K2 MK7 optimally in various processes. It activates important proteins that are responsible for calcium utilisation in your body. If the proteins are saturated, there is no further absorption and thus no thickening of the blood. Only people with pre-existing conditions or patients taking blood thinners should discuss taking vitamin K2 MK7 with their doctor to avoid complications.

Does it make sense to take vitamin K2 MK7 with vitamin D3?

In general, vitamin D3 and vitamin K2 are involved in the same processes in the body. Vitamin D ensures the absorption of calcium in the body. However, for the correct utilisation of calcium and activation of proteins, it needs vitamin K2. Together, the vitamins therefore ensure that calcium is deposited in the bones and not in the vessels or organs (23, 24).

Vitamin K2 MK7

The combination of vitamin K2 MK7 and vitamin D3 ensures an optimal supply and utilisation of calcium in your body. This has a positive effect on your bones and blood vessels (Image source: camilo jimenez / Unsplash).

If you already take vitamin D3 supplements, your body may suffer from a vitamin K2 deficiency. This is because the vitamin K2 in your body is needed more to utilise calcium. In the long term, this could lead to calcification of blood vessels and organs (23, 24) It therefore makes sense to take vitamin K2 MK7 together with vitamin D3. This way you can prevent a vitamin K2 deficiency and benefit from the positive effects of the vitamins.

Image source: ????? ????????/ 123rf

References (25)

1. Vermeer C, Jie KS, Knapen MH. Role of vitamin K in bone metabolism. Annu Rev Nutr. 1995;15:1-22. doi: 10.1146/annurev.nu.15.070195.000245. PMID: 8527213.
Source

2. Masterjohn C. Vitamin D toxicity redefined: vitamin K and the molecular mechanism. Med Hypotheses. 2007;68(5):1026-34. doi: 10.1016/j.mehy.2006.09.051. Epub 2006 Dec 4. PMID: 17145139.
Source

3. Hauschka PV, Lian JB, Cole DE, Gundberg CM. Osteocalcin and matrix Gla protein: vitamin K-dependent proteins in bone. Physiol Rev. 1989 Jul;69(3):990-1047. doi: 10.1152/physrev.1989.69.3.990. PMID: 2664828.
Source

4. Knapen MH, Schurgers LJ, Vermeer C. Vitamin K2 supplementation improves hip bone geometry and bone strength indices in postmenopausal women. Osteoporos Int. 2007 Jul;18(7):963-72. doi: 10.1007/s00198-007-0337-9. Epub 2007 Feb 8. PMID: 17287908; PMCID: PMC1915640.
Source

5. Iwamoto J., Vitamin K₂ therapy for postmenopausal osteoporosis. Nutrients. 2014 May 16;6(5):1971-80. doi: 10.3390/nu6051971. PMID: 24841104; PMCID: PMC4042573.
Source

6. Graham A. Coldlitz, Walter C. Willet. The Nurses' Health Study Annual Newsletter-Preventing Osteoporosis. 2004, Vol.11
Source

7. Geleijnse JM, Vermeer C, Grobbee DE, Schurgers LJ, Knapen MH, van der Meer IM, Hofman A, Witteman JC. Dietary intake of menaquinone is associated with a reduced risk of coronary heart disease: the Rotterdam Study. J Nutr. 2004 Nov;134(11):3100-5. doi: 10.1093/jn/134.11.3100. PMID: 15514282.
Source

8. Gast GC, de Roos NM, Sluijs I, Bots ML, Beulens JW, Geleijnse JM, Witteman JC, Grobbee DE, Peeters PH, van der Schouw YT. A high menaquinone intake reduces the incidence of coronary heart disease. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2009 Sep;19(7):504-10. doi: 10.1016/j.numecd.2008.10.004. Epub 2009 Jan 28. PMID: 19179058.
Source

9. Theuwissen E, Teunissen KJ, Spronk HM, Hamulyák K, Ten Cate H, Shearer MJ, Vermeer C, Schurgers LJ. Effect of low-dose supplements of menaquinone-7 (vitamin K2 ) on the stability of oral anticoagulant treatment: dose-response relationship in healthy volunteers. J Thromb Haemost. 2013 Jun;11(6):1085-92. doi: 10.1111/jth.12203. PMID: 23530987.
Source

10. Kramps M, Flanagan A, Smaldone A. The use of vitamin K supplementation to achieve INR stability: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Am Assoc Nurse Pract. 2013 Oct;25(10):535-44. doi: 10.1111/1745-7599.12022. Epub 2013 Mar 11. PMID: 24170485.
Source

11. Yan Li, Jie peng Chen, Lili Duan, Shuzhuang Li, 2018 Feb; 01(136): 39-51. 2017DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.diabres.2017.11.020, PlumX Metrics
Source

12. Li Y, Chen JP, Duan L, Li S. Effect of vitamin K2 on type 2 diabetes mellitus: A review. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2018 Feb;136:39-51. doi: 10.1016/j.diabres.2017.11.020. Epub 2017 Dec 2. PMID: 29196151.
Source

13. Iwamoto J, Sato Y, Takeda T, Matsumoto H. Bone quality and vitamin K2 in type 2 diabetes: review of preclinical and clinical studies. Nutr Rev. 2011 Mar;69(3):162-7. doi: 10.1111/j.1753-4887.2011.00380.x. Epub 2011 Feb 14. PMID: 21348880.
Source

14. Nimptsch K, Rohrmann S, Kaaks R, Linseisen J. Dietary vitamin K intake in relation to cancer incidence and mortality: results from the Heidelberg cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-Heidelberg). Am J Clin Nutr. 2010 May;91(5):1348-58. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.2009.28691. Epub 2010 Mar 24. PMID: 20335553.
Source

15. Lindholt JS, Frandsen NE, Fredgart MH, Øvrehus KA, Dahl JS, Møller JE, Folkestad L, Urbonaviciene G, Becker SW, Lambrechtsen J, Auscher S, Hosbond S, Alan DH, Rasmussen LM, Gerke O, Mickley H, Diederichsen A. Effects of menaquinone-7 supplementation in patients with aortic valve calcification: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial. BMJ Open. 2018 Aug 23;8(8):e022019. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2018-022019. PMID: 30139903; PMCID: PMC6112404.
Source

16. Chatrou ML, Winckers K, Hackeng TM, Reutelingsperger CP, Schurgers LJ. Vascular calcification: the price to pay for anticoagulation therapy with vitamin K-antagonists. Blood Rev. 2012 Jul;26(4):155-66. doi: 10.1016/j.blre.2012.03.002. Epub 2012 Apr 18. PMID: 22520397.
Source

17. Chatrou ML, Winckers K, Hackeng TM, Reutelingsperger CP, Schurgers LJ. Vascular calcification: the price to pay for anticoagulation therapy with vitamin K-antagonists. Blood Rev. 2012 Jul;26(4):155-66. doi: 10.1016/j.blre.2012.03.002. Epub 2012 Apr 18. PMID: 22520397.
Source

18. van Summeren MJ, Braam LA, Lilien MR, Schurgers LJ, Kuis W, Vermeer C. The effect of menaquinone-7 (vitamin K2) supplementation on osteocalcin carboxylation in healthy prepubertal children. Br J Nutr. 2009 Oct;102(8):1171-8. doi: 10.1017/S0007114509382100. Epub 2009 May 19. PMID: 19450370.
Source

19. van Summeren M, Braam L, Noirt F, Kuis W, Vermeer C. Pronounced elevation of undercarboxylated osteocalcin in healthy children. Pediatr Res. 2007 Mar;61(3):366-70. doi: 10.1203/pdr.0b013e318030d0b1. PMID: 17314699.
Source

20. Westenfeld R, Krueger T, Schlieper G, Cranenburg EC, Magdeleyns EJ, Heidenreich S, Holzmann S, Vermeer C, Jahnen-Dechent W, Ketteler M, Floege J, Schurgers LJ. Effect of vitamin K2 supplementation on functional vitamin K deficiency in hemodialysis patients: a randomized trial. Am J Kidney Dis. 2012 Feb;59(2):186-95. doi: 10.1053/j.ajkd.2011.10.041. Epub 2011 Dec 9. PMID: 22169620.
Source

21. Sato T, Schurgers LJ, Uenishi K. Comparison of menaquinone-4 and menaquinone-7 bioavailability in healthy women. Nutr J. 2012 Nov 12;11:93. doi: 10.1186/1475-2891-11-93. PMID: 23140417; PMCID: PMC3502319.
Source

22. Arkadiusz Szterk, Adam Zmysłowski, Katarzyna Bus, Identification of cis/trans isomers of menaquinone-7 in food as exemplified by dietary supplements, Food Chemistry, Volume 243, 2018, Pages 403-409, ISSN 0308-8146, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2017.10.001. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308814617316308)
Source

23. Iwamoto J, Sato Y, Takeda T, Matsumoto H. High-dose vitamin K supplementation reduces fracture incidence in postmenopausal women: a review of the literature. Nutr Res. 2009 Apr;29(4):221-8. doi: 10.1016/j.nutres.2009.03.012. PMID: 19410972.
Source

24. van Ballegooijen AJ, Pilz S, Tomaschitz A, Grübler MR, Verheyen N. The Synergistic Interplay between Vitamins D and K for Bone and Cardiovascular Health: A Narrative Review. Int J Endocrinol. 2017;2017:7454376. doi: 10.1155/2017/7454376. Epub 2017 Sep 12. PMID: 29138634; PMCID: PMC5613455.
Source

25. Nakano T, Tsugawa N, Kuwabara A, Kamao M, Tanaka K, Okano T. High prevalence of hypovitaminosis D and K in patients with hip fracture. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2011;20(1):56-61. PMID: 21393111.
Source

Role of vitamin K in bone metabolism
Vermeer C, Jie KS, Knapen MH. Role of vitamin K in bone metabolism. Annu Rev Nutr. 1995;15:1-22. doi: 10.1146/annurev.nu.15.070195.000245. PMID: 8527213.
Go to source
Vitamin D toxicity redefined: vitamin K and the molecular mechanism
Masterjohn C. Vitamin D toxicity redefined: vitamin K and the molecular mechanism. Med Hypotheses. 2007;68(5):1026-34. doi: 10.1016/j.mehy.2006.09.051. Epub 2006 Dec 4. PMID: 17145139.
Go to source
Osteocalcin and matrix Gla protein: vitamin K-dependent proteins in bone
Hauschka PV, Lian JB, Cole DE, Gundberg CM. Osteocalcin and matrix Gla protein: vitamin K-dependent proteins in bone. Physiol Rev. 1989 Jul;69(3):990-1047. doi: 10.1152/physrev.1989.69.3.990. PMID: 2664828.
Go to source
Vitamin K2 supplementation improves hip bone geometry and bone strength indices in postmenopausal women
Knapen MH, Schurgers LJ, Vermeer C. Vitamin K2 supplementation improves hip bone geometry and bone strength indices in postmenopausal women. Osteoporos Int. 2007 Jul;18(7):963-72. doi: 10.1007/s00198-007-0337-9. Epub 2007 Feb 8. PMID: 17287908; PMCID: PMC1915640.
Go to source
Vitamin K2 Therapy for Postmenopausal Osteoporosis
Iwamoto J., Vitamin K₂ therapy for postmenopausal osteoporosis. Nutrients. 2014 May 16;6(5):1971-80. doi: 10.3390/nu6051971. PMID: 24841104; PMCID: PMC4042573.
Go to source
The Nurses Health Study
Graham A. Coldlitz, Walter C. Willet. The Nurses' Health Study Annual Newsletter-Preventing Osteoporosis. 2004, Vol.11
Go to source
Dietary intake of menaquinone is associated with a reduced risk of coronary heart disease: the Rotterdam Study
Geleijnse JM, Vermeer C, Grobbee DE, Schurgers LJ, Knapen MH, van der Meer IM, Hofman A, Witteman JC. Dietary intake of menaquinone is associated with a reduced risk of coronary heart disease: the Rotterdam Study. J Nutr. 2004 Nov;134(11):3100-5. doi: 10.1093/jn/134.11.3100. PMID: 15514282.
Go to source
A high menaquinone intake reduces the incidence of coronary heart disease
Gast GC, de Roos NM, Sluijs I, Bots ML, Beulens JW, Geleijnse JM, Witteman JC, Grobbee DE, Peeters PH, van der Schouw YT. A high menaquinone intake reduces the incidence of coronary heart disease. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2009 Sep;19(7):504-10. doi: 10.1016/j.numecd.2008.10.004. Epub 2009 Jan 28. PMID: 19179058.
Go to source
Effect of low-dose supplements of menaquinone-7 (vitamin K2 ) on the stability of oral anticoagulant treatment: dose-response relationship in healthy volunteers
Theuwissen E, Teunissen KJ, Spronk HM, Hamulyák K, Ten Cate H, Shearer MJ, Vermeer C, Schurgers LJ. Effect of low-dose supplements of menaquinone-7 (vitamin K2 ) on the stability of oral anticoagulant treatment: dose-response relationship in healthy volunteers. J Thromb Haemost. 2013 Jun;11(6):1085-92. doi: 10.1111/jth.12203. PMID: 23530987.
Go to source
The use of vitamin K supplementation to achieve INR stability: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Kramps M, Flanagan A, Smaldone A. The use of vitamin K supplementation to achieve INR stability: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Am Assoc Nurse Pract. 2013 Oct;25(10):535-44. doi: 10.1111/1745-7599.12022. Epub 2013 Mar 11. PMID: 24170485.
Go to source
Effect of vitamin K2 on type 2 diabetes mellitus: A review
Yan Li, Jie peng Chen, Lili Duan, Shuzhuang Li, 2018 Feb; 01(136): 39-51. 2017DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.diabres.2017.11.020, PlumX Metrics
Go to source
Effect of vitamin K2 on type 2 diabetes mellitus: A review
Li Y, Chen JP, Duan L, Li S. Effect of vitamin K2 on type 2 diabetes mellitus: A review. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2018 Feb;136:39-51. doi: 10.1016/j.diabres.2017.11.020. Epub 2017 Dec 2. PMID: 29196151.
Go to source
Bone quality and vitamin K2 in type 2 diabetes: review of preclinical and clinical studies
Iwamoto J, Sato Y, Takeda T, Matsumoto H. Bone quality and vitamin K2 in type 2 diabetes: review of preclinical and clinical studies. Nutr Rev. 2011 Mar;69(3):162-7. doi: 10.1111/j.1753-4887.2011.00380.x. Epub 2011 Feb 14. PMID: 21348880.
Go to source
Dietary vitamin K intake in relation to cancer incidence and mortality: results from the Heidelberg cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-Heidelberg)
Nimptsch K, Rohrmann S, Kaaks R, Linseisen J. Dietary vitamin K intake in relation to cancer incidence and mortality: results from the Heidelberg cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-Heidelberg). Am J Clin Nutr. 2010 May;91(5):1348-58. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.2009.28691. Epub 2010 Mar 24. PMID: 20335553.
Go to source
Effects of menaquinone-7 supplementation in patients with aortic valve calcification: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial
Lindholt JS, Frandsen NE, Fredgart MH, Øvrehus KA, Dahl JS, Møller JE, Folkestad L, Urbonaviciene G, Becker SW, Lambrechtsen J, Auscher S, Hosbond S, Alan DH, Rasmussen LM, Gerke O, Mickley H, Diederichsen A. Effects of menaquinone-7 supplementation in patients with aortic valve calcification: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial. BMJ Open. 2018 Aug 23;8(8):e022019. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2018-022019. PMID: 30139903; PMCID: PMC6112404.
Go to source
Vascular calcification: the price to pay for anticoagulation therapy with vitamin K-antagonists
Chatrou ML, Winckers K, Hackeng TM, Reutelingsperger CP, Schurgers LJ. Vascular calcification: the price to pay for anticoagulation therapy with vitamin K-antagonists. Blood Rev. 2012 Jul;26(4):155-66. doi: 10.1016/j.blre.2012.03.002. Epub 2012 Apr 18. PMID: 22520397.
Go to source
Vascular calcification: the price to pay for anticoagulation therapy with vitamin K-antagonists
Chatrou ML, Winckers K, Hackeng TM, Reutelingsperger CP, Schurgers LJ. Vascular calcification: the price to pay for anticoagulation therapy with vitamin K-antagonists. Blood Rev. 2012 Jul;26(4):155-66. doi: 10.1016/j.blre.2012.03.002. Epub 2012 Apr 18. PMID: 22520397.
Go to source
The effect of menaquinone-7 (vitamin K2) supplementation on osteocalcin carboxylation in healthy prepubertal children
van Summeren MJ, Braam LA, Lilien MR, Schurgers LJ, Kuis W, Vermeer C. The effect of menaquinone-7 (vitamin K2) supplementation on osteocalcin carboxylation in healthy prepubertal children. Br J Nutr. 2009 Oct;102(8):1171-8. doi: 10.1017/S0007114509382100. Epub 2009 May 19. PMID: 19450370.
Go to source
Pronounced elevation of undercarboxylated osteocalcin in healthy children
van Summeren M, Braam L, Noirt F, Kuis W, Vermeer C. Pronounced elevation of undercarboxylated osteocalcin in healthy children. Pediatr Res. 2007 Mar;61(3):366-70. doi: 10.1203/pdr.0b013e318030d0b1. PMID: 17314699.
Go to source
Effect of vitamin K2 supplementation on functional vitamin K deficiency in hemodialysis patients: a randomized trial
Westenfeld R, Krueger T, Schlieper G, Cranenburg EC, Magdeleyns EJ, Heidenreich S, Holzmann S, Vermeer C, Jahnen-Dechent W, Ketteler M, Floege J, Schurgers LJ. Effect of vitamin K2 supplementation on functional vitamin K deficiency in hemodialysis patients: a randomized trial. Am J Kidney Dis. 2012 Feb;59(2):186-95. doi: 10.1053/j.ajkd.2011.10.041. Epub 2011 Dec 9. PMID: 22169620.
Go to source
Comparison of menaquinone-4 and menaquinone-7 bioavailability in healthy women
Sato T, Schurgers LJ, Uenishi K. Comparison of menaquinone-4 and menaquinone-7 bioavailability in healthy women. Nutr J. 2012 Nov 12;11:93. doi: 10.1186/1475-2891-11-93. PMID: 23140417; PMCID: PMC3502319.
Go to source
Identification of cis/trans isomers of menaquinone-7 in food as exemplified by dietary supplements
Arkadiusz Szterk, Adam Zmysłowski, Katarzyna Bus, Identification of cis/trans isomers of menaquinone-7 in food as exemplified by dietary supplements, Food Chemistry, Volume 243, 2018, Pages 403-409, ISSN 0308-8146, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2017.10.001. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308814617316308)
Go to source
High-dose vitamin K supplementation reduces fracture incidence in postmenopausal women: a review of the literature
Iwamoto J, Sato Y, Takeda T, Matsumoto H. High-dose vitamin K supplementation reduces fracture incidence in postmenopausal women: a review of the literature. Nutr Res. 2009 Apr;29(4):221-8. doi: 10.1016/j.nutres.2009.03.012. PMID: 19410972.
Go to source
The Synergistic Interplay between Vitamins D and K for Bone and Cardiovascular Health: A Narrative Review
van Ballegooijen AJ, Pilz S, Tomaschitz A, Grübler MR, Verheyen N. The Synergistic Interplay between Vitamins D and K for Bone and Cardiovascular Health: A Narrative Review. Int J Endocrinol. 2017;2017:7454376. doi: 10.1155/2017/7454376. Epub 2017 Sep 12. PMID: 29138634; PMCID: PMC5613455.
Go to source
High prevalence of hypovitaminosis D and K in patients with hip fracture
Nakano T, Tsugawa N, Kuwabara A, Kamao M, Tanaka K, Okano T. High prevalence of hypovitaminosis D and K in patients with hip fracture. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2011;20(1):56-61. PMID: 21393111.
Go to source
Reviews